Zitierweise / cite as:
Mahanama <6. Jhdt n. Chr.>: Mahavamsa : die große Chronik Sri Lankas / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 29. Kapitel 29: Beginn des Baus des Mahathupa. -- Fassung vom 2006-07-16. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/mahavamsa/chronik29.htm. -- [Stichwort].
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltungen, Sommersemester 2001, 2006
©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Übersetzers.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Buddhismus von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.
Die Zahlreichen Zitate aus Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. sind ein Tribut an dieses großartige Werk. Das Gesamtwerk ist online zugänglich unter: http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html. -- Zugriff am 2006-05-08.
Alle Verse mit Ausnahme des Schlussverses sind im Versmaß vatta = siloka = Śloka abgefasst.
Das metrische Schema ist:
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
Ausführlich zu Vatta im Pāli siehe:
Warder, A. K. (Anthony Kennedy) <1924 - >: Pali metre : a contribution to the history of Indian literature. -- London : Luzac, 1967. -- XIII, 252 S. -- S. 172 - 201.
1 Evaṃ samatte sambhāre Vesākhe puṇṇamāsiyaṃ
Patte Visākhanakkhatte Mahāthūpattham arārabhi.
Als so1 die Materialien zusammen waren, begann er am Vollmondtag des Monats Vesākha2 als der Mond im Mondhaus Visākha3 stand das Werk für den Mahāthūpa (Großen Stūpa)4.
1 so siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 28 ("Beschaffung der Materialien zum Bau des Mahāthūpa")
2 Vesākha: 2. Monat des indischen Mondkalenders: an diesem Tag wurde Buddha geboren, erreichte die erlösende Einsicht und ging ins völlige Erlöschen (Mahāparinibbāna) ein.
Die Monate nach dem indischen Mondkalender sind:
Monatsname fällt in Monate bzw. 1 Citta Februar/März März/April 2. Vesākha März/April April/Mai 3 Jeṭṭha April/Mai Mai/Juni 4 Āsāḷha Mai/Juni Juni/Juli 5 Sāvaṇa Juni/Juli Juli/August 6. Poṭṭhapāda Juli/August August/September 7. Assayuja August/September September/Oktober 8. Kattika September/Oktober Oktober/November 9. Maggasira/Māgasira Oktober/November November/Dezember 10. Phussa November/Dezember Dezember/Januar 11. Māgha Dezember/Januar Januar/Februar 12. Phagguna Januar/Februar Februar/März
"Vesak (from the name of the second month in the Hindu calendar, Vaisakha) is the most holy time in the Buddhist calendar. The word Vesak itself is the Sinhalese language word for the Pali word "Visakha". Vesak is also known as Visakah Puja or Buddha Purnima in India, Visakha Bucha in Thailand, Waisak in Indonesia, Vesak (Wesak) in Sri Lanka and Malaysia, and Saga Dawa in Tibet. The equivalent festival in Laos is called Vixakha Bouxa. Vesak is a public holiday in many Asian countries like Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and so on.
The decision to agree to celebrate Vesak as the Buddha’s birthday was formalized at the first Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists (W.F.B.) held in Sri Lanka in 1950, although festivals at this time in the Buddhist world are a centuries-old tradition. The Resolution that was adopted at the World Conference reads as follows:-
“That this Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, while recording its appreciation of the gracious act of His Majesty, the Maharaja of Nepal in making the full-moon day of Vesak a Public Holiday in Nepal, earnestly requests the Heads of Governments of all countries in which large or small number of Buddhists are to be found, to take steps to make the full-moon day in the month of May a Public Holiday in honour of the Buddha, who is universally acclaimed as one of the greatest benefactors of Humanity."
Hence on Vesak Day, Buddhists all over the world commemorate three great events: The Birth, Enlightenment and the Passing Away of Gautama Buddha. As Buddhism spread from India to all parts of the world, the teachings were readily assimilated with the cultures of the people who accepted the teachings. As a result, Buddhist art and culture took on a rich variety of forms with profound gentleness and kindness as the Buddha expressly forbade the use of force. The practice of Buddhism was adapted in many ways to suit the nature of the various cultures that accepted it. As a result of this, Vesak is celebrated in many different ways all over the world. But in essence many practices have become universal. This sacred day is purely a religious festival, and not a festive occasion. On this day all Buddhists are expected to reaffirm their faith in the Buddha Dhamma and to lead a noble religious life. It is a day for meditation and for radiating Loving-Kindness.The celebration of Vesak
On Vesak day, devout Buddhists are expected to assemble in various temples before dawn for the ceremonial hoisting of the Buddhist Flag and the singing of hymns in praise of the holy triple gem: The Buddha, The Dhamma (His teachings), and The Sangha (His disciples). Devotees may bring simple offerings of flowers, candles and joss-sticks to lay at the feet of their teacher. These symbolic offerings are to remind followers that just as the beautiful flowers would wither away after a short while and the candles and joss-sticks would soon burn out, so too is life subject to decay and destruction. Devotees are enjoined to make a special effort to refrain from killing of any kind. They are encouraged to partake of vegetarian food for the day. In some countries, notably Sri Lanka, two days are set aside for the celebration of Vesak and all liquor shops and slaughter houses are closed by government decree during the two days. Birds and animals are also released by the thousands in a symbolic act to liberation, of giving freedom to those who are in captivity. However, it is not recommended that birds be released in the heart of crowded cities, because by doing so we may cause harm to the poor bewildered birds which are unable to fly far after a long period of captivity. Unscrupulous bird dealers would recapture such birds for resale to well meaning devotees. If birds are to be released it is recommended that this be done in rural areas where the birds can achieve real freedom. Some devout Buddhists will wear a simple white dress and spend the whole day in temples with renewed determination to observe the observance of the Eight Precepts.
Devout Buddhists understand how to lead a noble life according to the Teaching by making a daily affirmation to observe the eight Precepts. However, on special days, notably new moon and full moon days, they observe additional disciplines to train themselves to practice morality, simplicity and humility.
The Eight Precepts are:
- Not to kill
- Not to steal
- Not to engage in sexual misconduct
- Not to indulge in wrong speech
- Not to take intoxicating drinks and drugs
- To abstain from taking food at unreasonable time
- To refrain from sensual pleasures such as dancing, singing and self-adornment
- To refrain from using high and luxurious seats in order to practice humility.
Devotees are expected to listen to talks given by monks. On this day monks will recite verses uttered by the Buddha twenty-five centuries ago, to invoke peace and happiness for the Government and the people. Buddhists are reminded to live in harmony with people of other faiths and to respect the beliefs of other people as the Buddha had taught.Bringing happiness to others
Celebrating Wesak also means making special efforts to bring happiness to the unfortunate like the aged, the handicapped and the sick. To this end, Buddhists will distribute gifts in cash and kind to various charitable homes throughout the country. Wesak is also a time for great joy and happiness. But this joy is expressed not by pandering to one’s appetites but by concentrating on useful activities such as decorating and illuminating temples, painting and creating exquisite scenes from the life of the Buddha for public dissemination. Devout Buddhists also vie with one another to provide refreshments and vegetarian food to devotees who visit the temple to pay homage to the Blessed One.Float processions
In recent years many Buddhist groups have taken to organising processions with decorated floats carrying the image of the Buddha to celebrate Wesak, although this is a relatively recent tradition. Temples are also decorated modestly in good taste so as to encourage people to visit the temple to attend the religious services and not merely to view the decorations.Paying homage to the Buddha
The Buddha Himself has given invaluable advice on how to pay homage to Him. Just before He died, He saw His faithful attendant Ananda, weeping. The Buddha advised him not to weep, but to understand the universal law that all compounded things (including even His own body) must disintegrate. He advised everyone not to cry over the disintegration of the physical body but to regard His teachings (The Dhamma) as their Teacher from then on, because only the Dhamma truth is eternal and not subject to the law of change. He also stressed that the way to pay homage to Him was not merely by offering flowers, incense, and lights, but by truly and sincerely striving to follow His teachings. This is how devotees and expected to celebrated Vesak: to use the opportunity to reiterate their determination to lead noble lives, to develop their minds, to practise loving-kindness and to bring peace and harmony to mankind.Related holidays
A similar holiday, called Hanamatsuri [佛誕] or "Flower Festival", is celebrated in Japan on April 8. However, Hanamatsuri commemorates only the Buddha's birth. In Hong Kong, Macao and South Korea, the 8th day of the fourth moon in the Chinese calendar is a public holiday, as the "Buddha's Birthday"."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesak. -- Zugriff am 2006-04-24]
"Vaisākha (Hindi: बैसाख baisākh or वैशाख vaiśākh) is a month of the Hindu calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Vaisakha is the second month of the year, beginning on 21 April and ending on 21 May.
In lunar religious calendars, Vaisakha may begin on either the new moon or the full moon around the same time of year, and is usually the second month of the year. The harvest festival of Baisakhi [ਵੈਸਾਖੀ] is celebrated in this month.
In solar religious calendars, as well as the national calendar of Nepal, Vaisākh begins with the Sun's entry into Aries, and is usually the first month of the year.
The Buddhist holiday of Vesak takes its name from Vaisākha."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisakha. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-01]
3 Mondhaus Visākha: α, β, γ and ι Librae
Abb.: Mondhaus Visākha
Zu den Mondhäusern siehe:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashastra : Einführung und Überblick. -- 10. Sakramente und Übergangsriten (samskara). -- Anhang A: Mondhäuser (Nakshatra). -- URL: http://www.payer.de/dharmashastra/dharmash10a.htm
4 Mahāthūpa: heute Ruwanwelisaya Dagoba
Abb.: Mahāthūpa, Anurādhapura, 2004
[Bildquelle: DennisSylvetserHurd. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/dennissylvesterhurd/40136912/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
Abb.: Lage des Mahāthūpa in Anurādhapura
[Bildquelle: Mahānāma <5. Jhd. n. Chr.>: The Mahavamsa or, The great chronicle of Ceylon / translated into English by Wilhelm Geiger ... assisted by Mabel Haynes Bode...under the patronage of the government of Ceylon. -- London : Published for the Pali Text Society by H. Frowde, 1912. -- 300 S. -- (Pali Text Society, London. Translation series ; no. 3). -- Vor S. 137.]
The great Thūpa in Anurādhapura, built by Dutthagāmani. The site on which it was erected was consecrated by the visit of all the four Buddhas of this kappa and was at the upper end of the Kakudhavāpi. It was one of the spots at which Mahinda scattered campaka flowers by way of homage, and the earth trembled. When Mahinda informed Devānampiyatissa of the great sanctity of the spot and of its suitability for a Thūpa, Tissa immediately wished to build the Thūpa himself, but Mahinda bade him desist, telling him that the work would be carried out in the future by Dutthagāmani. Tissa recorded this prophecy on a pillar of stone (Mhv.xv.51ff., 167ff). When Dutthagāmani had won his victory over the Damilas and had brought peace to the country, he saw the prophecy inscribed on the stone pillar, but was unwilling to start the work as the people were too crippled with regard to money to be able to support such an immense undertaking. But the devas read his thoughts and provided him with all the necessaries for the building of the Thūpa. Prepared bricks were found on the banks of the Gambhīranadī, copper near Tambapittha, silver in the Ambatthakolalena, pearls at Uruvelā, and gems in a cave near Pelivāpigāma. The building was started on the full moon day of Visākha. The foundation stone was laid on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month of Asālha. Great celebrations marked the event, arrangements for which were in the hands of the ministers Visākha and Sirideva. Monks were present not only from all over Ceylon but from many other places: eighty thousand under Indagutta from Rājagaha, twelve thousand under Dhammasena from Isipatana, sixty thousand under Piyadassī from Jetavanārāma, eighteen thousand under Mahā Buddharakkhita from Mahāvana in Vesāli, thirty thousand under Mahā Dhammarakkhita from Ghositārāma in Kosambī, forty thousand under Mahā Sangharakkhita from Dakkhināgiri in Ujjeni, one hundred and sixty thousand under Mittinna Asokārāma in Pātaliputta, two hundred and eighty thousand under Uttinna from Kasmīra, four hundred and sixty thousand under Mahādeva from Pallabhogga, thirty thousand under Yonamahā Dhammarakkhita from Alasandā, sixty thousand under Uttara from Viñjhātavī, thirty thousand under Cittagutta from Bodhimanda vihāra, eighty thousand under Candagutta from Vanavāsa, and ninety six thousand under Suriyagutta from Kelāsa vihāra. Of arahants alone ninety six crores were present.
As the king stepped into the space left open for him, he expressed the desire that, if his worship were to have a happy result, theras bearing the names of the Buddha, his Dhamma and his Sangha, should take their places on the east, south, and west sides respectively, and a thera bearing the name of Ananda on the north side, each thera to be surrounded by a group bearing the same name. The king's wish was fulfilled; the theras in question and their companions were called Mahā Buddharakkhita, Mahā Dhammarakkhita, Mahā Sangharakkhita and Mahānanda. As the king was about to mark the space to be covered by the cetiya, the Thera Siddhattha, looking into the future, told him to define only a moderate space for the Thūpa. This the king did; then, looking at the theras immediately around him, he inquired their names and rejoiced to find them so auspicious, they being Siddhattha, Mangala, Sumam, Paduma, Sīvalī, Candagutta, Suriyagutta, Indagutta, Sāgara, Mittasena, Jayasena, and Acala. He then laid the first foundation stone on the east side on sweet smelling clay prepared by Mittasena and sprinkled with water by Jayasena; Mahāsumana placed jasmine flowers on the stone. Immediately the earth trembled in wonder. The minister who helped the king to mark out the area of the cetiya was Suppatitthitabrahmā, son of Nandisena and Sumanadevī. At the end of the ceremony, Piyadassī preached to the assembled populace, and many attained to various fruits of the Path.
The Thūpa was like a water bubble in shape; its architect was Sirivaddha and his assistant Acala. Orders were given that no unpaid work should be done in the construction of the cetiya. Arahants caused the three terraces of flower offerings to the Thūpa (pupphādhānā) to sink nine times into the earth, in order, as they explained, to strengthen the foundations. The cetiya was one hundred and twenty cubits high, and for the ten flower terraces alone ten crores of bricks were used.
The Relic Chamber was of unparalleled magnificence, and consisted of four medavannapāsānā, each eighty cubits in length and in breadth and eight inches thick. These were brought from Uttarakura by two sāmaneras, Uttara and Sumana. In the Chamber were placed sculptural representations of the chief events connected with the Buddha's life as well as pictures of several Jātakas, including the Vessantara.
For list see Mhv.xxx.71ff.; the MT (549ff.) contains a long disquisition to prove that there is no reason to doubt the account given of the contents of the Relic Chamber, for in its construction the power (iddhi) of the king, of devas, and of arahants came into play.
The work of the Relic Chamber was under the personal supervision of Indagutta Thera, of great iddhi power. When the Chamber was ready for the enshrining of the Relics, Sonuttara of Pūjā parivena was entrusted with the task of obtaining them. In a previous birth, as Nanduttara, he had vowed to have the power of doing this, and now was his opportunity. He went to Mañjerika Nāga bhavana, where the Relics, washed away from the Thūpa at Rāmagāma, were in the custody of the Nāga Mahākāla, and by a display of iddhi power obtained them from the Nāga against his desire. They represented one dona of the Buddha's Relics, and the Buddha had predicted that they would ultimately be placed in the Mahā Thūpa. These Relics were enshrined on the fifteenth uposatha day in the light half of the month of āsālha, under the constellation of Uttarāsālha. Many devas and brahmas and nāgas were present as on the day of the Buddha's Enlightenment, and ninety six crores of arahants attended the ceremony. As the king, after passing three times round the cetiya, ascended it on the east side, and was about to descend into the Relic Chamber, bearing on his head the Casket of Relics, the casket opened and the Relics rose out of it, and taking on the form of the Buddha, performed the Twin Miracle, as at the foot of the Gandamba. When the Relics were placed on the couch prepared for them they assumed, as the king had desired, the form of the Buddha as he lay on his death bed. For a whole week the celebrations lasted, and during this period the king offered to the Relics the dominion of Ceylon, and Indagutta decreed that the people of Ceylon, wherever they might be, should be able immediately to visit the Thūpa should they desire to do so. At the end of the seven days, the two sāmaneras, Uttara and Sumana, closed the Chamber with the medavannapāsānā set apart for the purpose, while arahants pronounced that flowers offered in the Relic Chamber should not wither, nor scents dry up; the lamps should not be extinguished nor anything whatever perish.
The building of the Māha Thūpa is described in Mhv. chaps xxviii-xxx.; MT. 514 83; Dpv.xix.1ff.; also Thūpavamsa (pp. 66ff.).
The treasures enshrined in the Mahā Thūpa were worth twenty crores, the rest cost one thousand crores (Mhv.xxxii.18).
Before the parasol of the Mahā Thūpa and the plaster work could be completed, Dutthagāmani fell ill, and his brother, Saddhātissa, summoned from Dīghavāpi, contrived with great skill to make the Thūpa look complete, that the king might see it before he died. After the king's obsequies had been performed, in a place within sight of the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xxxii.58), Saddhātissa finished the work yet remaining and established celebrations to be performed three times daily at the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xxxii.60; Mhv.xxxiii.5). Lañjatissa levelled the ground between the Mahā Thūpa and the Thūpārāma and built three stone terraces at the cost of three hundred thousand (Mhv.xxxiii.22f). Khallātanāga made the courtyard of sand, surrounded by a wall (Mhv.xxxiii.31). Bhātika constructed two vedikā round the courtyard (Mhv.xxxiv.39). It is said (MT. 553f) that Bhātika was taken by the arahants into the Relic Chamber, and he held great celebrations in its honour (see Bhātikābhaya). Mahādāthika Mahānāga converted the sand courtyard into a wide court laid out with kiñcakkha stones on plaster (Mhv.xxxiv.69), while Amandagāmani erected a parasol over the cetiya (Mhv.xxxv.2) and Ilanāga made the Lambakannas construct a roadway leading up to the Mahā, Thūpa (Mhv.xxxiv.17). Sirināga had the whole Thūpa gilded and crowned with a new parasol (Mhv.xxxvi.24), this work being undertaken again later by Sanghatissa (Mhv.xxxvi.65), while Sanghabodhi made rain to pour down by means of prostrating himself in the courtyard (Mhv.xxxvi.75). Jetthatissa offered two precious gems to the Thūpa (Mhv.xxxvi.126), while Aggabodhi I. placed on the Thūpa a golden umbrella (Cv.xlii.32), From this time onward the country passed through very troublous times and the Mahā Thūpa was neglected. But it was restored by Parakkamabāhu I. (Cv.lxxiv.10; lxxvi.106f; lxxviii.97) and again by Kittinissanka (Cv.lxxx.20); it was later pillaged by Māgha (Cv.lxxx.68), and remained neglected till the time of Parakkamabāhu II., who started the work of reconstruction (Cv.lxxxvii.66), which was completed by his son Vijayabāhu IV. Cv.lxxxviii.83; after this, the cetiya once more fell into disrepair and has so continued till recently, when an attempt is being made to rebuild it.
The Mahā Thūpa has been a place of pilgrimage for Buddhists from the time of its building down to the present day, even when the place was deserted and its courtyards overgrown with creepers (e.g., Vibhā.446). There seems to have been a hall for pilgrims to the west of the cetiya (Vibhā.446). When the Buddha's sāsana disappears, all the Relics of the Buddha deposited in various cetiyas all over Ceylon will gather together at the Mahācetiya, and from there will go to the Rajāyatana cetiya in Nāgadīpa, thence to the, Mahābodhipallanka, where all the Relics, assembled from everywhere, will take the form of the Buddha seated at the foot of the Bodhi tree. Then they will be consumed by self generated flames (Vibhā.433).
The Mahā Thūpa is known by other names: Mahācetiya, Ratanavāluka (Cv.lxxvi.106), Ratanavāli (Cv.lxxx.68), Sonnamāli (Mhv.xxvii.3) (Hemamāli), and Hemavāluka (Cv.li.82)."
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]
2 Hāretvā hi tahiṃ yūpaṃ thūpaṭṭhānam akhānayi
Sattahatthe mahīpālo thiraṃ kātum anekadhā
Der König ließ den Steinpfosten1 entfernen und ließ den Platz für den Stūpa sieben Ellen2 tief fürs Fundament ausheben, um ihn vielfach zu festigen.
1 Steinpfosten: mit dem der Ort für den zukünftigen Stūpa markiert war. Siehe Mahāvāmsa, Kapitel 28, Vers 2.
2 Elle (hattha): die Länge vom Ellbogen bis zur Spitze des Mittelfingers, oft = 24 aṅgula, d.h. ca. 45 cm. 7 Ellen = ca. 3 m.
3 Yodhehi āharāpetvā guḷapāsāṇake tahiṃ
Kūṭehi paharāpetvā pāsāṇe cuṇṇite atha
4 Cammāvanaddhapādehi mahāhatthīhi maddayi
Bhumiyā thirabhāvatthaṃ atthānatthavicakkhaṇo.
3. - 4.
Er ließ von Soldaten Steinbrocken dorthin bringen. Diese ließ er mit Hämmern zerschlagen. Dann ließ er, der Nutzen und Schaden kannte, auf dem Schotter große Elefanten, die um die Füße Leder gebunden hatten, trampeln, damit der Grund fest wurde.
[Bildquelle: jmb1977. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/jmb1977/4156746/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
5 Ākāsagaṅgāpatitaṭṭhāne satatatintake
Mattikā sukhumā tattha samantā tiṃsayojane
6 Navanītamattikā t' esā sukhumattā pavuccati;
Khīṇāsavā sāmaṇerā mattīkā āharuṃ tato.
5. - 6.
Der feine, immerfeuchte Lehm in einem Umkreis von 30 Yojana1 von der Stelle, wo die Luft-Gaṅgā2 auf die Erde fällt, heißt wegen seiner Feinheit "Butter-Lehm". Novizen, die Arhants waren, brachten Lehm von dort.
1 30 Yojana = ca. 330 km.
The river that flows southward from the Anotatta Lake receives, in its different stages, various names. That part of it which flows sixty leagues through the air is called Ākāsagangā (SnA.ii.439; MA.586, etc.). The Buddha's discourse on various topics (pakinnakakathā) is like the downward flow of the Ākāsagangā (AA.i.94; DhA.iii.360); so also is the eloquence of clever preachers (E.g., DhA.iv.18; J.ii.65).
The fine clay to be found in the area (thirty yojanas in extent) over which the Ākāsagangā falls to earth, is called, on account of its fineness, "butter clay" (navanīta-mattikā). This clay was brought by arahant sāmaneras to be spread over the foundation of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura (Mhv.xxix.5f). The spot where it is found is called Tintasīsakola. MT.515"
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]
7 Mattikā attharāpesi tattha pāsāṇakoṭṭime
Iṭṭhakā attharāpesi mattikopari issaro.
8 Tassopari kharasudhaṃ, kuruvindaṃ tatopari;
Tassopari ayojālaṃ; marumban tu tatopari
9 Āhaṭaṃ sāmaṇerehi Himavantā sugandhakaṃ
Saṃtharāpesi bhumindo phaḷikan tu tatopari.
7. - 9.
Der König ließ den Lehm dort über die zermalmten Steine streichen, über den Lehm ließ er Ziegel legen, darüber rauen Kalk, darüber Zinnober1 (?), darüber ein ein Eisennetz, darüber wohlriechendes Marumba (?), das Novizen aus dem Himalaja brachten. Darüber ließ der König Bergkristall legen.
1 kuruvinda: Übersetzung unsicher. Zinnober (HgS) könnte u.U. wegen seines Quecksilbergehalts als Unkrauts- und Schädlingsbekämpfungsmittel gestreut worden sein.
[Bildquelle: mharrsch. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/44124324682@N01/166738318/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Verwendung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
2 Marumba: von mir nicht bestimmbar
10 Silāyo saṃtharāpesi phaḷikāsaṃtharopari.
Sabbattha mattikā kicce navanītavhayā ahū.
Über die Lage Bergkristall ließ er Steine legen. Überall bei den Arbeiten verwendete man als Lehm "Butter-Lehm".
11 Niyyāsena kapitthassa sannītena rasodake
Aṭṭhaṅgulaṃ bahalato lohapaṭṭaṃ silopari;
12 Manosilāya tilatelasannītāya tatopari
Sattaṅgulaṃ sajjhupaṭṭaṃ santhāresi rathesabho.
Über die Steine ließ der König acht Fingerbreit dicke Kupferplatten zusammen mit dem Gummi des Elefantenapfelbaums1, der mit Gewürzwasser vermischt worden war, darüberer sieben Fingerbreit dicke Silberplatten zusammen mit Realgar2, das mit Sesamöl3 gemischt worden war.
1 Elefantenapfelbaum: Feronia limonia (= F. elephantum) "Elephant apple", "Wood apple"
Abb.: Feronia limonia
[© 1995-2005 Missouri Botanical Garden http://www.illustratedgarden.org]
page.asp?relation=QK3498R6817951819V2&identifier=0113. -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
"Feronia limonia (Linn.) Swingle syn. F. elephantum Correa Elephant Apple, Wood Apple
D.E.P., III, 326; Fl. Br. Ind., I, 516.
Hindi—Bilin, kait, kavitha; Beng.—Kait, katbel; Guj.—Kavit, kotha, kothi, kothun; Mar.—Kavatha, kavith, kovit; Tel.—Velaga; Tam.—Vilanga; Kan.—Bela; Mal.—Vila, vilatti.
A small deciduous tree with short, erect, cylindrical stem, 30-40 ft. high and 2-4 ft. in girth, bearing thorny branches; leaves pinnate, 3-4 in. long, with small ovate or obovate leaflets; flowers polygamous in lax panicles; fruit large, globose or oblate, 1.0-2.5 inches in diam. with hard, rough, woody pericarp; seeds numerous, small, compressed, embedded in a sweetish aromatic edible pulp.
The plant is a native of India and Ceylon and is found throughout the plains of India, particularly in dry situations. It occurs, wild or cultivated, up to an elevation of 1,500 ft. in western Himalayas. It is more common in the Deccan, Thana district of Bombay and S. Chanda district of Madhya Pradesh. It is also reported to occur in parts of Hazaribagh and Palamau in Chota Nagpur. It is often cultivated on borders of fields and as a roadside tree near villages and is sometimes planted in orchards. It is propagated by seeds or by cuttings and layering. Buds from mature trees budded on seedlings are said to produce dwarf trees which fruit early. It can be planted under almost all conditions of soil and climate. F. limonia has been tried as a rootstock for budding Citrus plants, but has not proved particularly successful (Pearson & Brown, I, 204; Naik, 455; Webber & Batchelor, I, 468; Burkill, I, 998; Bhat, Indian Fmg, 1944, 5, 17).
Two types are recognised, one with small acidic fruits and the other with large sweet ones. The fruits ripen generally from November to March. The pulp of the ripe fruit is eaten as such or with sugar. It can be used for making sherbat in the same way as bael (Aegle marmelos Correa). The pulp is used in making chutney (Bhat, loc. cit.).
The fruit is considered tonic, refreshing, cardiacal, astringent (when unripe), antiscorbutic and alexiformic. It is used as a substitute for bael in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The pulp is used for affections of the gum and throat (Kirt. & Basu, I, 497; B.P.C., 134).
The tree is lopped for fodder in U.P. and Bombay. The leaves are aromatic, carminative and astringent. [...]
Feronia gum—From the trunk and branches of the tree exudes a gum resembling gum arabic in properties. The exudation is profuse after the rainy season. It is considered to be a good substitute for gum arabic and commercial samples of the latter often contain feronia gum in admixture. Feronia gum occurs in irregular, semi-transparent tears varying in colour from reddish brown to pale yellow or colourless. The gum dissolves in water forming a tasteless mucilage, more viscous than that of gum-arabic made in the same proportion and not inferior to it in adhesive properties. [...]
The wood is yellowish grey to greyish white, hard and heavy (sp. gr., c. 0.83). It is somewhat refractory to season. It is durable both under cover and in exposed situations. It is used for house building, naves of wheels and oil crushers. It can be used as pattern wood, for shoe lasts, pen holders, rulers and similar articles. It is also used for agricultural implements and ornamental carving (Pearson & Brown, I, 205)."
[Quelle: The wealth of India : a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. -- Raw materials. -- Vol. IV. -- New Delhi : Council of scientific & industrial research, 1956. -- ISBN 81-85038-13-9. -- S. 18 - 20]
2 Realgar: AsS. Das wegen des hohen Arsengehalts von ca. 70 Gewichtsprozenten hochgiftige Realgar wird heute noch für die Herstellung von Pestiziden benutzt
Abb.: Realgar (rot) im Übergang zu Auripigment (gelb)
[Bildquelle: cobalt123. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/cobalt/28205862/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
3 Sesamöl: Öl von Sesamum indicum, hat konservierende Funktion (enthält einen hohen Anteil verschiedener Antioxidantien)
13 Mahāthūpapatiṭṭhānaṭṭhāne evaṃ mahīpati
Kāretvā parikammāni vippasannena cetasā
14 Āsāḷhāsukkapakkhassa divasamhi catuddase
Kāretvā bhikkhusaṅghassa sannipātam idaṃ vadi:
13. - 14.
Nachdem der König so mit heiterem Gemüt die Stelle des zukünftigen Stūpa hat vorbereiten lassen, ließ er am 14. Tag1 der hellen Hälfte des Monats Āsāḷha2 die Mönchsgemeinde zusammenkommen und sprach zu ihr:
1 also am Vortag des Vollmondtages
2 Āsāḷha: 4. Monat des indischen Mondkalenders (Mai/Juni bzw. Juni/Juli). Die Arbeiten am Fundament dauerten also zwei Monate.
15 Mahācetiyaatthāya bhadantā maṅgaliṭṭhakaṃ
Patiṭṭhapessaṃ sve, ettha sabbo saṅgho sametu no.
16a. Buddhapūjāpayogena mahājanahitatthiko
15. - 16a.
"Ehrwürdige, morgen werde ich den Glücksziegelstein1 für das große Cetiya legen. Unsere ganze Ordensgemeinde möge sich hier zum Heil vieler Menschen versammeln, um ein Buddha-Verehrungsfest abzuhalten.
1 Glücksziegelstein: entspricht unserem Grundstein
Abb.: Grundstein, Matara, Sri Lanka, 2005
[Bildquelle: sarvodaya.org. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/sarvodaya/6321981/in/photostream/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
16b. Mahājano 'posathiko gandhamālādi gaṇhiya
17 Mahāthūpapatiṭṭhānaṭṭhānaṃ yātu suve iti.
Cetiyaṭṭhānabhūsāya amacce ca niyojayi.
16b. - 17.
Viele Leute, die die Uposatha-Gelübde1 halten, mögen morgen mit wohlriechenden Blumenkränzen usw. zur Stelle, wo der große Stūpa errichtet wird, kommen." Er beauftragte Minister mit dem Schmuck der Baustelle des Cetiya.
1 Uposatha-Gelübde, d.h. die acht Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit:
Im Unterschied zu den fünf Übungspunkten der Sittlichkeit, die eine allgemeinmenschliche Sittlichkeit ausdrücken, sind die haben die zehn Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit asketisch-zölibatäre Inhalte. Die zehn Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit sind die Übungspunkte, die ein Novize im buddhistischen Orden auf sich nimmt. Auch andere Personen, die ein asketisch-zölibatäres Leben führen wollen können diese Übungspunkte auf Zeit oder für Dauer auf sich nehmen.
1. Enthaltung vom Töten (und Verletzen) von Lebewesen - Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich pāṇātipātā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 2. Enthaltung vom Nehmen von Nichtgegebenem - Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich adinnādānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 3. Enthaltung von jeglicher Art sexueller Betätigung -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich abrahmacariyā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 4. Enthaltung von Lügen, Hinterträgerei, Denunziation, verbalen Grobheiten, Geschwätz -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich musāvādā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 5. Enthaltung von berauschenden Mitteln, die Anlaß zu Nachlässigkeit sind -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich surāmerayamaccapamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 6. Enthaltung von Essen zur Unzeit (d.h. zwischen Mittag und nächstem Morgen) -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich vikālabhojanā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 7. Enthaltung von Tanz, Gesangs- und Instrumentaldarbietungen und von Unterhaltungsshows -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich naccagītavāditavisukkhadassanā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 8. Enthaltung vom Tragen von Kränzen, Parfüm und Schminke und Schmuck zum Schmücken -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich mālāgandhavilepanādharanamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhāna veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 9. Enthaltung von hohen und großen (d.h. luxuriösen) Betten -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich uccāsayanamahāsayanā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi 10. Enthaltung vom Entgegennehmen von Gold und Silber -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich jātarūparajatapaṭiggahaṇā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi
Buddhistische Laien nehmen oft an Vollmondtagen asketische Übungen auf sich, wie sie in den acht Übungspunkten der Sittlichkeit ausgedrückt werden:
Die acht Übungspunkte der Sittlichkeit lassen Übungspunkt 10 weg und fassen Übungspunkt 7 und 8 zu Übungspunkt 7 zusammen:
7. Enthaltung von Tanz, Gesangs- und Instrumentaldarbietungen und von Unterhaltungsshows, vom Tragen von Kränzen, Parfüm, Schminke und Schmuck zum Schmücken -- Ich nehme diesen Übungspunkt auf mich
Abb.: "Viele Leute, die die Uposatha-Gelübde halten, mögen morgen mit wohlriechenden Blumenkränzen usw. ...": Vesak, Zahntempel, Kandy, 2006
[Bildquelle: Jungle_Boy. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/jungle_boy/151322760/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
18 Āṇāpitā narindena munino piyagāravā
Anekehi pakārehi te taṃ ṭhānam alaṅkaruṃ.
Auf Anordnung des Königs schmückten mit hingebungsvoller Ehrfurcht gegenüber dem Weisen (Buddha) auf vielfältig diesen Platz.
19 Nagaraṃ sakalañ ceva maggañ ceva idhāgataṃ
Anekehi pakārehi alaṅkārayi bhūpati.
Der König ließ auch die ganze Stadt und den zum Bauplatz führenden Weg vielfältig schmücken.
20 Pabhāte ca catudvāre nagarassa ṭhapāpayi
Nhāpite nhāpake ceva kappake ca bahū, tathā
21 Vatthāni gandhamālā ca annāni madhurāni ca
Mahājanatthaṃ bhūmindo mahājanahite rato.
20. - 21.
Am folgenden Morgen stellte der König, dem am Heil vieler Leute lag, für viele Leute er an den vier Toren viele Barbiere, Bademeister und Gehilfen auf, ebenso Kleidung wohlriechende Blumenkränze und Süßspeisen.
Abb.: Barbiere, Hyderabad, 1973 [హైదరాబాదు; حیدر آباد]
[Bildquelle: danielguip. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/danielguip/128066596/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006--07-15]
22 Paṭiyattāni etāni ādiyitvā yathāruci
Porā jānapadā ceva thūpaṭṭhānam upāgamuṃ.
Städter und Landvolk nahmen nach Belieben von den so dargebotenen Dingen und gingen zu Bauplatz des Sūtpa.
23 Sumaṇḍitehi nekehi ṭhānantaravidhānato
Ārakkhito amaccehi yathāṭhānaṃ mahīpati
Der König wurde von vielen gemäß ihren unterschiedlichen Stellungen wohlgeschmückten Ministern gemäß ihrem Rang bewacht.
Abb.: "gemäß ihren unterschiedlichen Stellungen geschmückt": Honoratioren aus Kandy, um 1850
[Quelle der Abb.: Tennent, James Emerson <1804-1869>: Ceylon: an account of the island. -- 2nd ed. -- London : Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1859. -- 2 Bde. : Ill. ; 23 cm. -- Bd. 2, S. 206.]
24 Sumaṇḍitāhi nekāhi devakaññūpamāhi ca
Nāṭakīhi paribbūḷho sumaṇḍitapasādhito
Er war umgeben von vielen wohlgeschmückten, himmlischen Mädchen gleichenden Tänzerinnen. Er selbst war wohlgeschmückt herausgeputzt.
Abb.: "wohlgeschmückte, himmlischen Mädchen gleichende Tänzerinnen": Fresko, Sigiriya
[Bildquelle: yacht_boy. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/turgeon/188647409/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-15]
25 Cattāḷīsasahassehi narehi parivārito
Tato turiyasaṃghuṭṭho devarājavilāsavā
Er war von 40.000 Männern umgeben. Musik ertönte für ihn, er war schön wie ein Götterkönig.
26 Mahāthūpapatiṭṭhānaṃ ṭhānāṭhānavicakkhaṇo
Aparaṇhe upāgañchi nandayanto mahājanaṃ
Am Nachmittag ging er, der gute und schlechte Plätze unterscheiden konnte, zur Freude vieler Menschen zum Bauplatz des Großen Stūpa.
27 Aṭṭhuttarasahassaṃ so sāṭakāni ṭhapāpayi
Puṭabaddhāni majjhamhi catupasse tato pana
28 Vatthāni rāsiṃ kāresi anekāni mahīpati;
Madhusappiguḷādi ca maṅgalatthaṃ ṭhapāpayi.
27. - 28.
In der Mitte des Platzes ließ er 8008 Wagenladungen von zu Bündeln gepackter Kleidung stellen, an den vier Seiten ließ er viel Kleidung aufhäufen. Er ließ auch Honig, Ghee, Molassebrocken und ähnliches für die Feier auslegen.
29 Nānādesā pi āgañchuṃ bahavo bhikkhavo idha;
Idha dīpaṭṭhasaṅghassa kā kathā va idhāgame
Selbst aus dem Ausland kamen viele Mönche hierher. Was braucht man da über das Kommen der Ordensgemeinschaft, die auf der Insel wohnt, erzählen!
Abb.: Ungefähre Lage der Orte und Regionen, aus denen Mönche zur Grundsteinlegung gekommen sein sollen
30 Thero 'sītisahassāni bhikkhū ādāya āgamā
Rājagahassa sāmantā Indagutto mahāgaṇī.
Der Thera Indagutta1, das Haupt einer großen Mönchsgruppe, kam mit 80.000 Mönchen aus der Gegend von Rājagaha2.
A thera. He superintended the construction of the Mahāthūpa at Anurādhapura (Mhv.xxxviii.98; Dpv.xix.5, 6, 8). Dutthagāmanī consulted him with regard to all details and appointed him kammādhitthāyaka from the commencement of the work (MT.550f). He had great psychic powers, and at the festival of the dedication of the Thūpa he created a parasol of copper, as great as the universe, to ward off any harm that might befall those taking part in the celebrations (Mhv.xxxi.85). He was at the side of the king throughout the festival (Mhv.xxxi.105), and, by virtue of his power, all the inhabitants of Ceylon, who wished to worship the relics at the Mahāthūpa, were enabled to go to Anurādhapura the moment the wish to do so entered their hearts, and to return the same day (Mhv.xxxi.115).
This Indagutta is probably to be identified with the thera Indagutta, the head of a great parivena in Rājagaha, who came to Ceylon with eighty thousand monks to be present at the foundation-ceremony of the Mahāthūpa (Mhv.xxix.30)."
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]
2 Rājagaha: zur Zeit des Buddha Gautama Hauptstadt des Königreichs Magadha, heute Rājgīr. Von Rājagaha nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 1900 km Luftlinie.
Abb.: Rājagaha, 2006
[Bildquelle: juicyrai. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/wink/188851550/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keien kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
31 Sahassān' Isipatanā bhikkhūnaṃ dvādasādiya
Dhammaseno mahāthero cetiyaṭṭhānam āgamā.
31. Der große Thera Dhammasena kam mit 12.000 Bhikkus von Isipatana1 zur Baustelle des Cetiya.
1 Isipatana: heute Sārnāth (8 km nördlich von Benares). Von Isipatana nach Anurādhapura sind es etwa 1900 km Luftlinie.
Abb.: Isipatana, 2005
[Bildquelle: Hyougushi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/hyougushi/49955814/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
An open space near Benares, the site of the famous Migadāya or Deer Park. It was eighteen leagues from Uruvelā, and when Gotama gave up his austere penances his friends, the Pañcavaggiya monks, left him and went to Isipatana (J.i.68). After his Enlightenment the Buddha, leaving Uruvela, joined them in Isipatana, and it was there that he preached his first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, on the full-moon day of āsālha. Vin.i.10f.; on this occasion 80 kotis of Brahmas and innumerable gods attained the comprehension of the Truth (Mil.30); (130 kotis says Mil.350). The Lal. (528) gives details of the stages of this journey. The Buddha, having no money with which to pay the ferryman, crossed the Ganges through the air. When Bimbisāra heard of this, he abolished the toll for ascetics.
There, also, the Buddha spent his first rainy season (BuA., p.3).
All the Buddhas preach their first sermon at the Migadāya in Isipatana; it is one of the four avijahitatthānāni (unchanging spots), the others being the bodhi-pallanka, the spot at the gate of Sankassa, where the Buddha first touches the earth on his return from Tāvatimsa, and the site of the bed in the Gandhakuti in Jetavana (BuA.247; DA.ii.424).
Isipatana is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit (D.ii.141).
Isipatana was so-called because sages, on their way through the air (from the Himalayas), alight here or start from here on their aerial flight (isayo ettha nipatanti uppatanti cāti-Isipatanam).
The Migadāya was so-called because deer were allowed to roam about there unmolested.
Pacceka Buddhas, having spent seven days in contemplation in the Gandhamādana, bathe in the Anotatta Lake and come to the habitations of men through the air, in search of alms. They descend to earth at Isipatana (MA.i.387; AA.i.347 adds that sages also held the uposatha at Isipatana).
Sometimes the Pacceka Buddhas come to Isipatana from Nandamūlaka-pabbhāra (MA.ii.1019; PsA.437-8).
Several other incidents connected with the Buddha, besides the preaching of the first sermon, are mentioned as having taken place in Isipatana. Here it was that one day at dawn Yasa came to the Buddha and became an arahant (Vin.i.15f). It was at Isipatana, too, that the rule was passed prohibiting the use of sandals made of talipot leaves (Vin.i.189). On another occasion when the Buddha was staying at Isipatana, having gone there from Rājagaha, he instituted rules forbidding the use of certain kinds of flesh, including human flesh (Vin.i.216ff.; the rule regarding human flesh was necessary because Suppiyā made broth out of her own flesh for a sick monk). Twice, while the Buddha was at Isipatana, Māra visited him but had to go away discomfited (S.i.105f).
Besides the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta mentioned above, several other suttas were preached by the Buddha while staying at Isipatana, among them
- the Pañca Sutta (S.iii.66f),
- the Rathakāra or Pacetana Sutta (A.i.110f),
- the two Pāsa Suttas (S.i.105f),
- the Samaya Sutta (A.iii.320ff),
- the Katuviya Sutta (A.i.279f.),
- a discourse on the Metteyyapañha of the Parāyana (A.iii.399f), and
- the Dhammadinna Sutta (S.v.406f), preached to the distinguished layman Dhammadinna, who came to see the Buddha.
Some of the most eminent members of the Sangha seem to have resided at Isipatana from time to time; among recorded conversations at Isipatana are several between Sāriputta and Mahākotthita (S.ii.112f;iii.167f;iv.162f; 384ff), and one between Mahākotthita and Citta-Hatthisāriputta (A.iii.392f).
Mention is made, too, of a discourse in which several monks staying at Isipatana tried to help Channa in his difficulties (S.iii.132f).
According to the Mahāvamsa, there was a large community of monks at Isipatana in the second century B.C. For, we are told that at the foundation ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura, twelve thousand monks were present from Isipatana led by the Elder Dhammasena (Mhv.xxix.31).
Hiouen Thsang (Beal: Records of the Western World, ii.45ff ) found, at Isipatana, fifteen hundred monks studying the Hīnayāna. In the enclosure of the Sanghārāma was a vihāra about two hundred feet high, strongly built, its roof surmounted by a golden figure of the mango. In the centre of the vihāra was a life-size statue of the Buddha turning the wheel of the Law. To the south-west were the remains of a stone stupa built by Asoka. The Divy. (389-94) mentions Asoka as intimating to Upagupta his desire to visit the places connected with the Buddha's activities, and to erect thupas there. Thus he visited Lumbinī, Bodhimūla, Isipatana, Migadāya and Kusinagara; this is confirmed by Asoka's lithic records, e.g. Rock Edict, viii.
In front of it was a stone pillar to mark the spot where the Buddha preached his first sermon. Near by was another stupa on the site where the Pañcavaggiyas spent their time in meditation before the Buddha's arrival, and another where five hundred Pacceka Buddhas entered Nibbāna. Close to it was another building where the future Buddha Metteyya received assurance of his becoming a Buddha.
Hiouen Thsang quotes the Nigrodhamiga Jātaka (J.i.145ff) to account for the origin of the Migadāya. According to him the Deer Park was the forest gifted by the king of Benares of the Jātaka, where the deer might wander unmolested.
According to the Udapāna Jātaka (J.ii.354ff ) there was a very ancient well near Isipatana which, in the Buddha's time, was used by the monks living there.
In past ages Isipatana sometimes retained its own name, E.g., in the time of Phussa Buddha (Bu.xix.18), Dhammadassī (BuA.182) and Kassapa (BuA.218). Kassapa was born there (ibid., 217).
But more often Isipatana was known by different names (for these names see under those of the different Buddhas). Thus in Vipassī's time it was known as Khema-uyyāna. It is the custom for all Buddhas to go through the air to Isipatana to preach their first sermon. Gotama, however, walked all the way, eighteen leagues, because he knew that by so doing he would meet Upaka, the Ajivaka, to whom he could be of service (DA.ii.471).
Isipatana is identified with the modern Saranath, six miles from Benares. Cunningham (Arch. Reports, i. p. 107) found the Migadāya represented by a fine wood, covering an area of about half a mile, extending from the great tomb of Dhammek on the north to the Chaukundi mound on the south."
32 Saṭṭhibhikkhusahassāni ādāya idham āgamā
Piyadassī mahāthero Jetārāmavihārato.
Der große Thera Piyadassī kam mit 60.000 Mönchen vom Jetārāma-Kloster1.
Kommentar:1 in Sāvatthi: heute Maheth. Zur Zeit Buddhas Hauptstadt des Königreichs Kosala. Von Sāvatthi nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 2100 km Luftlinie.
A park in Sāvatthi, in which was built the Anāthapindikārāma. When the Buddha accepted Anāthapindika's invitation to visit Sāvatthi the latter, seeking a suitable place for the Buddha's residence, discovered this park belonging to Jetakumāra (MA.i.471 says it was in the south of Sāvatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy it, Jeta's reply was: "Not even if you could cover the whole place with money." Anāthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, and when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the price mentioned were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase. Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana with pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii., pp.84-6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anāthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anāthapindika agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it. Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc. (Vin.ii.158f).
It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J.ii.216).
Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika himself spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the park and the buildings erected in it.
The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anāthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five hundred other youths, his wife with five hundred other noble women, and his daughters Mahā Subhaddā and Cūla Subhaddā with five hundred other maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The festivities in connection with the dedication lasted for nine months (J.i.92ff).
Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are mentioned in the books by special names, viz., Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla, Kosambakuti and Candanamāla. SNA.ii.403. Other buildings are also mentioned - e.g., the Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J.ii.246). According to Tibetan sources the vihāra was built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita and contained sixty large halls and sixty small. The Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihāra (Rockhill: op. cit.48 and n.2).
All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building erected by Pasenadi and called the Salalaghara (DA.ii.407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering (SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see DhA.i.41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).
In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed (J.i.329ff.). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But see S.v.220; it was near this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in Avīci (J.iv.158)).
The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the appearance of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anāthapindika, which came later to be called the Anandabodhi (J.iv.228f). Not far from the gateway was a cave which became famous as the Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an incident connected with Macchariyakosiya (J.i.348).
Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana was a spot where the Ajivakas practised their austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans (J.ii.170)).
There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana to drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana, and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh themselves (J.ii.203, 341; see also vi.70, where two roads are mentioned).
According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy.395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta and Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana and existed until the time of Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p.33ff) and Houien Thsang (Beal.ii.7ff) give descriptions of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana - e.g., the murder of Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā, Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc.
The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhī, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhū was half a league in extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gāvuta. Konagamana's monastery, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta, while Kassapa's built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika's monastery covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA.2, 47; J.i.94; DA.ii.424).
The Buddha spent nineteen rainy seasons in Jetavana (DhA.i.3; BuA.3; AA.i.314). It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana and Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA.i.336).
According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp.31, 33), the vihāra was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., and the lamps burnt from dusk to dawn.
One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners and canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihāra was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east, one on the west, and Fa Hsien found thūpas erected at all the places connected with the Buddha, each with its name inscribed.
The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa ārāma. The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was deliberate (at the Buddha's own suggestion pp.81-131; Beal: op. cit., ii.5 and Rockhill: p.49), in order that the names of both earlier and later owners might be recorded and that people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes referred to as Jetārāma (E.g., Ap.i.400).
In the district of Saheth-Mabeth, with which the region of Sāvatthi is identified, Saheth is considered to be Jetavana (Arch. Survey of India, 1907-8, pp.81-131)."
33 Vesālīmahāvanato thero 'rubuddharakkhito
Aṭṭhārasasahassāni bhikkhū ādāya āgamā.
Der Thera Uru-Buddharakkhita kam aus dem Mahāvana-Kloster2 in Vesālī1 mit 18.000 Mönchen.
1 Vesālī: Zur Zeit Buddhas Hauptstadt der Licchavī-Republik. Von Vesālī nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 2000 km Luftlinie.
Abb.: Vesālī, 2005
[Bildquelle: Hyougushi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/hyougushi/31157539/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
A wood near Vesāli. It was partly natural, partly man made, and extended up to the Himālaya (MA.i.298; DA.i.309). See Kūṭāgārasālā."
34 Kosambīghositārāmā thero 'rudhammarakkhito
Tiṃsa bhikkhusahassāni ādāya idha āgato.
Der Thera Uru-Dhammarakkhita kam aus dem Ghositārāma2 in Kosambī1 mit 30.000 Mönchen hierher.
1 Kosambī: Zur Zeit Buddhas Hauptstadt des Königreiches Vaṃsā. Von Kosambī nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 1900 km. Luftlinie.
A monastery in Kosambī, built by Ghosita (Ghosaka) for the use of the Buddha and the monks. The Buddha often stayed there during his visits to Kosambī and numerous incidents are mentioned in the books in connection with the monastery. It was because of a dispute between two monks of the Ghositārāma, one expert in the Vinaya and one in the Dhamma, that the first schism arose in the Order, driving the Buddha himself to seek quiet in the Pārileyyaka forest.
Vin.i.337f; M.i.320; DhA.i.44ff; the Kosambī monks were evidently somewhat peculiar (see Vin.iv.197).
Even at other times the Buddha seems to have sought solitude in this forest during his sojourns at the Ghositārāma (See, e.g., S.iii.96f). It was here that the Buddha decreed the ukkhepaniyakamma for Channa, who refused to acknowledge and atone for his offences (Vin.ii.21f), and here that he laid down the procedure in that connection to be followed.
Devadatta was at Ghositārāma when he first conceived the idea of using Ajātasattu for his own ends (Vin.ii.184f). The Buddha was there at the time and it is said that the devaputta Kakudha appeared before Mahā-Moggallāna to warn him of Devadatta's schemes. The information was reported to the Buddha, who warned Moggallāna not to pass it on to others. The Buddha then proceeded to tell Moggallāna of the five kinds of teachers which appear in the world (A.iii.122f).
Ananda is several times spoken of as staying in the Ghositārāma, sometimes with the Buddha, sometimes alone. On one such occasion he asks the Buddha why women should suffer from certain disabilities as compared with men (A.ii.82). And again (A.iii.132f), what are the circumstances which conduce to ease (phāsuvihāra) in the case of monks? Could it be said of a follower of the Buddha that his attainments depend on the length of time during which he has observed the Buddha's teachings? Once Ananda visits (A.iv.37f), at her request, a nun living near by reported to be ill and enamoured of him. The mere sight of him causes her recovery, but he preaches to her on the impermanent nature of the body and makes her realise the truth (A.ii.144f). Among those who visit Ananda at the Ghositārāma and discuss various matters with him are mentioned:
Ghosita (S.iv.113), Unnābha (S.v.271f.), a householder, follower of the Ajivikas (A.i.217f.), and Bhaddaji (A.iii.202). Udāyī twice visits him there, once to ask for a description of consciousness (S.iv.169f.), and again to quote a verse uttered by Pañcālacanda devaputta and to ask Ananda to explain it (A.iv.449).
We find him also joining in a discussion which ensued on a sermon to the monks by Ananda (A.iv.426f.). Udāyī preached to large audiences at the Ghositārāma and was evidently appreciated, for we find Ananda reporting it to the Buddha and being told that it is no easy matter to preach to a large assembly with acceptance (A.iii.184f.).
The Yuganaddha Sutta is a discourse preached by Ananda to the monks at the Ghositārāma of his own accord (A.ii.156f.). Channa is several times mentioned in connection with incidents taking place at the Ghositārāma. Mention has already been made of the ukkhepa-niyakamma declared on him. A devoted householder, wishing to build a vihāra for him, asked him for a site. Vin.iii.155f; mention is made of other misdemeanours which he committed in order to have a fine vihāra (Vin.iv.47).
Channa started cutting down trees and other things, in order to clear the site, and this led to great uproar. On another occasion he is reported to the Buddha for refusing to listen to his colleagues and the Buddha chides him (Vin.iii.77, also iv.35f, 113. See also S.iii.132f). It was when Channa was at the Ghositārāma that Ananda came, at the bidding of the monks, to inflict on him the brahmadanda (Vin.ii.292).
Among others mentioned as staying at the Ghositārāma are Mūsila, Savittha, Nārada, in the company of Ananda (S.ii.115), Pindola Bhāradvāja - who converts Udena when the latter comes to see him (S.iv.110f.) and earns the Buddha's praises for his attainments (S.v.224) - Sāriputta and Upavāna (S.v.76), and Bāhiya and Anuruddha (A.ii.239). Anuruddha is there at the time of the schism of the Kosambī monks but refuses to intervene. He indulges, instead, in his powers of clairvoyance and mention is made of a visit paid to him by the Manāpakāyika-devas (A.iv.262f).
Dāsaka and a number of other monks were once staying in the Ghositārāma; on learning that Khemaka lies ill in the Badarikārāma, one gāvuta away, the others send Dāsaka several times to and fro to ask various questions of Khemaka. In the end, Khemaka himself comes to them to solve their difficulties (S.iii.126f).
See also following Suttas and Jātakas, all preached while the Buddha was staying at the Ghositārāma:
- Kosambiya Sutta
- Jāliya Sutta
- Sandaka Sutta
- Upakkilesa Sutta
- Sekha Sutta
- Dalhadhamma Jātaka
- Kosambī Jātaka
- Suripāna Jātaka
Thirty thousand monks from the Ghositārāma, under the leadership of Urudhammarakkhita, were present at the foundation of the Mahā Thūpa at Anurādhapura. Mhv.xxix.34."
35 Ādāy' Ujjeniyaṃ thero Dakkhiṇāgirito yatī
Der Thera Uru-Saṅgharakkhita1 kam von Dakkhiṇāgiri3 in Ujjenī2 mit 40.000 Asketen
1 Man Beachte: in Vers 33 bis 35 sind die Theras in der Reihenfolge der drei Juwelen benannt: Uru(=Mahā)-Buddha-rakkhita, Uru-Dhamma-rakkhita, Uru-Saṅgha-rakkhhita: "Der große von Buddha Beschützte ... von der Buddhalehre Beschützte ... von der Gemeinschaft der Erlösten Beschützte".
2 Ujjenī = heute: Ujjain (उज्जैन). Von Ujjenī nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 1700 km Luftlinie.
Abb.: Ujjenī, 2006
[Bildquelle: .tushar. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/pokle/145806327/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
"Dakkhiṇāgiri (v.l. Dakkhiṇagiri)
A janapada (district) in India, the capital of which was Ujjeni, and over which Asoka ruled as Viceroy. It also contained the city of Vedisā (Sp.i.70; Mhv.xiii.5).
The Dakkhināgiri-vihāra was, for a long time, a great monastic centre, and at the foundation of the Mahā Thūpa there were present from there forty thousand monks led by Mahā Sangharakkhita. Mhv.xxix.35."
36 Bhikkhūnaṃ satasahassaṃ saṭṭhisahassāni cādiya
Pupphapure 'sokārāmā thero Mittiṇṇanāmako.
Der Thera Mitiṇṇa kam aus dem Asokārāma2 in Pupphapura1 mit 160.000 Mönchen.
1 Pupphapura = Pāṭaliputta = heutiges Patna (पटना). Von Pupphapura nach Anurādhapura sind es ca. 2000 km Luftlinie.
Abb.: Pāaliputta, 2005 (Mauriya-Hotel)
[Bildquelle: Hyougushi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/hyougushi/49955814/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
A monastery in Pātaliputta, built by Asoka and finished in three years. It was there that the king's brother Tissa was ordained. When the monks had refused for seven years to hold the uposatha ceremony, Asoka sent his minister to summon them to the Asokārāma. There the misguided minister beheaded several theras who refused to obey his orders. It was there that Moggaliputta Tissa held the Third Council and made a compilation of the Dhamma (Mhv.v.80, 163, 174, 236, 276).
Asoka used to feed 60,000 monks daily at the Asokārāma.
On the day of the foundation of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura, sixty thousand monks under Mittinna came from Asokārāma (Mhv.xxix.36). There, too, lived Dhammarakkhita, the teacher of Nāgasena (Mil.16-18).
Indagutta Thera was appointed by the king to superintend the building of the vihāra (Sp.i.48-9).
It was from Asokārāma that Mahinda set out on his mission to Ceylon (Sp.i.69). "
37 Duve satasahassāni sahassāni asīti ca
Bhikkhū gahetvān' Uttiṇṇo thero Kasmīramaṇḍalā.
Der Thera Uttiṇṇa kam aus dem Land Kasmīra1 mit 280.000 Mönchen.
1 Kasmīra = heutiges Kashmir. Siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 12, Vers 9ff.
38 Cattāri satasahassāni sahassāni ca saṭṭhi ca
Bhikkhū Pallavabhoggamhā Mahādevo mahāmati.
Der weise Mahādeva kam mit 460.000 Mönchen aus dem Pallava-Reich1.
1 Pallava = Perser, ob in oder außerhalb Indiens ist umstritten.
"The Pahlavas are a people mentionned in ancient Indian texts like the Manu Smriti, various Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Brhatsamhita etc. They are referenced in the Mahabharata and the Puranic literature as Pahlavas as well as Pallavas. They were ancient Persian tribe, known as Pahlavi [پهلوی], who migrated from Persia to west, south-west and southern India and founded the Pahlava dynasties. They are said to be same as the Parasikas.
According to P. Carnegy, the Pahluva are probably those people who spoke Paluvi or Pehlvi, a language pf Persia. Buhler thinks that Phalvas and their Iranian prototype Pahlava are corruptions of Parthavas. They are same as Parthians. The first reference to Pahlavas is found in the Rigveda. Vartika of Katyayana mentions Sakah-Parthavah showing that in fourth century BCE, the Parthavas or Pahlavas were known to the Hindus probably by way of commerce.Pahlavas in Puranic texts
Pahlavas are referenced in various Puranic texts like Vayu Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Markendeya Purana, Matsya Purana, Vamana Purana etc.Geographical Location of Pahlavas
Kirfel's list of Uttarapatha countries of the Bhuvanakosha locates the Pahlavas along with the Tusharas, Chinas, Angalaukikas, Barbaras, Kambojas, Daradas, Bahlikas and other countries of the Udichya division of ancient India. e.g:
- ete desha udichyastu
- Kambojashchaiva Dardashchaiva Barbarashcha Angaukikah ||
- Chinashchaiva Tusharashcha Pahlavadhayata narah ||
- (From Kirfel's Text of Bhuvanakosha )
Vayu Purana, Brahamanda Purana and several other Puranas mention the Pahlavas with the tribes of Uttarapatha or north-west. The sixth century text Markendeya Purana (57.35) lists the Pahlavas, Kambojas, Daradas, Bahlikas, Barbaras, Tusharas, Daradas, Paradas, Chinas, Lampakas etc as the countries of Udichya division i.e Uttarapatha, but 58th chapter of the Markendeya Purana also refers to yet other settlements of the Pahlavas and the Kambojas and locates them both specifically in the south-west of India as neighbors to the Sindhu, Sauvira and Anarta (north Saurashtra) countries. Further the sixth century CE Brhatsamhita of Varaha Mihira also locates the Pahlavas and Kamboja kingdoms in south-west India i.e around Gujarat/Saurashtra (See also: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, 1972, p 134-135, Dr M. R. Singh).
Puranas like Vayu also state that the Udichyas including the Pahlavas, Paradas, Gandharas, Sakas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Kambojas, Khasas, Lampakas, Madhyadesis, Vindhyas, Aprantas, Dakshinatyas, Dravidas, Pulindas, Simhalas etc would be proceeded against and annihilated by Kalki in Kaliyuga. And they are stated to have been annhilated by king Pramiti at the end of Kali age as per Puranic evidence.
According to Vayu Purana and Matsya Purana, river Chakshu (Oxus or Amu Darya [آمودری]) flowed through the countries of Pahlavas, Tusharas, Lampakas, Paradas and the Shakas etc (Vayu Purana I.58.78-83).Pānca Ganahas or Five Hordes
Puranas associate the Pahlavas with the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas and Paradas and brands them together as Panca-ganah (fiver-hordes). These five hordes were military allies of the Haihaya and Taljunga Kshatriyas of Yadava line and were chiefly responsible for dethroning king Bahu of Kosala. Later, king Sagara, son of king Bahu, was able to defeat the Haihayas and Taljungas together with these five-hordes. According to Puranic accounts, king Sagara had divested the Paradas and other members of the well-known Pānca-gana (i.e. the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas and Pahlavas) of their Kshatriyahood and turned them into the Mlechchas. Before their defeat at the hands of king Sagara, these five-hordes were called Kshatriya-pungava (i.e. foremost among the Kshatriyas).Pahlavas vs Pallavas
Many Puranic texts refer to the Pallavas and Pahlavas indistinguishably, thus attesting that the Pallavas of southern India are also derived from the Iranian Pahlavas. While Vayu Purana mention Pahlava and Pahnava, the Brahmanda Purana and Markendeya Purana etc refer to them both as Pahlava as well as Pallava and the Vamana Purana and Matsya Purana etc note them as Pallava.
Bhishama Parava of Mahabharata too references the Pahlavas as Pallavas:
Pahlavas in Valmiki Ramayana
- Khashikashcha TukharAshcha Pallava girigahvarah ||66||
- (MBH Bhishama Parava 6.11.66)
The Balakanda of the Ramayana groups the Pahlavas with the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Mlechhas and the Kiratas and refers to them as military allies of sage Vasishtha against Vedic king Vishwamitra (55/2-3).
The Kiskindha Kanda of Ramayana associates the Pahlavas with the Yavanas, Shakas, Kambojas, Paradas (Varadas), Rishikas and the Uttarakurus etc and locates them all in the trans-Himalayan territories i.e. in the Sakadvipa (Ramayana Kisk. Kanda, 43-12).Pahlavas in Mahabharata
Pahlavas in Uttarapatha
Mahabharata attests that Pandava-putra Nakula had defeated the Pahlavas in the course of his western expedition. The kings of Pahlava were also present at the Rajasuya sacrifice of king Yudhishtra.
The Mahabharata also associates the Pahlavas with the Shakas, Yavanas, Gandharas, Kambojas, Tusharas, Sabaras, Barbaras, etc. and addresses them all as the Barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha.Pahlavas in south-west India
But the Udyoga-Parva of Mahabharata groups the Pahlavas with the Shakas, Paradas and the Kambojas-Rishikas and locates them all in/around Anupa region in western India.
- Shakanam Pahlavanan cha Daradanam cha ye nripah.|
- Kambojarishika ye cha pashchimanupakashcha ye 15.||
- (MBH 5.4.15)
These kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and Daradas (Paradas) and the Kamboja Rshikas, these are in the western riverine (Anupa) area. (It may be remembered that the Daradas in this passage appears to be a copyist's mistake since it is the Paradas and not the Daradas who are a member of the well known Puranic Panca-gana or five-hordes).
This epic refence implies that sections of the Pahlavas, Shakas, Paradas, Kambojas were also located in western India near Saurashtra/Maharashtra.Pahlavas in Manusmriti
Manusmriti (X.43-44) states that the Pahlavas and several other tribes like the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, Daradas, Khasas, Dravidas etc were originally noble Kshatriyas, but later, due to their non-observance of sacred Brahmanical codes and neglect of the priestly class, they had gradually sunken to the status of Mlechchas.Pahlavas in Mudrarakshas Drama
The Buddhist drama Mudrarakshas by Visakhadutta and the Jaina works Parisishtaparvan refer to Chandragupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvatka. This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a powerful composite army made up of the frontier martial tribes of the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Parasikas (Pahlavas), Bahlikas etc (predominantly an Iranian army) which he utilised to defeat the Greek successors of Alexander and the Nanda rulers of Magadha, and thus establishing his Mauryan Empire in northern India (See: Mudrarakshas, II).Pahlavas in Brihat-Katha-Manjari
The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshmendra (10/1/285-86) relates that around 400 AD, the Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the barbarians" like the Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas (Pahlavas), Hunas, etc. by annihilating these "sinners" completely.Pahlavas in Kavyamimamsa
The 10th century Kavyamimamsa (Ch. 17) of Pt Raj Shekhar still lists the Sakas, Tusharas, Vokanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Pahlavas, Tangana, Turukshas, etc. together and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division.Migration of Pahlavas
As noted above, the Pahlavas settlements have been noted both in the north/north-west as well as in the western and south-west India in post Christian times. This shows that the Pahlavas had moved to western region around Christian times. This movement of the Pahlavas appears to have been associated with the well known tribal movements of several Central Asian tribes like the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Tusharas, Rishikas, Paradas etc which had occurred around second century prior to Christian era. Allied with the Sakas, Kambojas etc, the Pahlavas are believed to have entered India through Bolan Pass. The Pahlavas had set up a dynasty under Venones in Balochistan and Kandhahar. The Pahlava rule in Afghanistan, Sindh and Punjab was supplanted by that of Kushanas.
According to Dr Jouveau Dubreuil, the Pahlavs migrated from Persia to India and founded the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi. They first occupied Anarta and Konkan and later entered southern India via Kuntala or Vanavasa.
- "The Pallavas were immigrants from north, or properly speaking from Konkan and Anarta into Deccan. They came into south India through Kuntala or Vanvasa..." (Jouveau Dubreuil).
- "The Pallavas of Kāñcīpuram must have come originally from Persia, though the interval of time which must have elapsed since they left Persia must be several centuries. As the Persians are generally known to (p.220) Indian poets under the name Pārasīka, the term Pahlava or Pallava must denote the Arsacidan Parthians, as stated by Professor Weber." (Venkayya 1907, p.219-220)
Dr V. A. Smith says:
- "It is possible that the Pallavas were not one distinct tribe or class but a mixed population composed partly of foreigners and partly of the Indian population but different in race from Tamils and taking their name from the title of an intruding foreign dynasty (Pahlava) which obtained control over them and welded them into an aggressive political power" (Early History of India, 1924, Dr V. A. Smith)."
- [Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahlava. -- Zugrif am 2006-07-15]
39 Yonanagarālasandā Yonamahādhammarakkhito
Thero tiṃsasahassāni bhikkhū ādāya āgamā.
Der griechische Thera Mahādhammarakkhita aus der baktrischen1 Stadt Alasanda2 mit 30.000 Mönchen.
1 Yona = Baktrien. Siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 12, Vers 39ff.
2 Alasanda = Alexandria (Αλεξάνδρεια έσχατη) = Alexandria Eschate, heute: Chudschand (tadschikisch Хуҷанд/Chudschand bzw. خجند; englisch Khujand; bis 1939 Ходжент/Chodschent; von 1939 bis 1992 Ленинобод/Leninobod, russ. Ленинабад/Leninabad; auch Alexandria Eschatê – "das entfernteste Alexandria" – die zweitgrößte Stadt in Tadschikistan (Тоҷикистон, تاجکستان).
Abb.: Lage von Alexandria Eschate
Abb.: Alasanda (Chudschand), 2005
[Bildquelle: lazyoldsun. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/lazyoldsun/73305648/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-15]
40 Viñjhāṭavivattaniyā senāsanā tu Uttaro
Thero saṭṭhisahassāni bhikkhū ādāya āgamā.
Der Thera Uttara kam mit 60.000 von ihrer Wohnung an der Straße durch den Viñjhā-Wald1.
1 Viñjhā = Vindhyā
Abb.: Lage des Klosters an der Straße Pāṭaliputta (Patna) - Tāmalitti (Tamluk) durch den Viñjhā-Wald
The Vindhyā mountains and the forests surrounding them, through which lay the road from Tāmalitti to Pātaliputta. Along this road Asoka travelled bearing the Bodhi tree (Mhv.xix.6; Dpv.xvi.2). This was also the road leading from Ceylon to Pātaliputta (Dpv.xv.87). Near the forest was a great monastery from which sixty thousand monks, led by Uttara, went to attend the Foundation Ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xx.ix.40). At the foot of the mountain was a market town named Munda. DhA.iv.128 ; elsewhere, however e.g. Sp.iii.655, Viñjhātavi is described as agāmakam araññam.
The forest was the abode of petas. See, e.g., PvA. 43, 192, 244."
41 Cittagutto mahāthero Bodhimaṇḍavihārato
Tiṃsa bhikkhusahassāni ādiyitvā idhāgamā.
Der große Thera Cittagutta kam mit 30.000 Mönchen vom Bodhimaṇḍa-Kloster1 hierher.
1 Bodhimaṇḍa-Kloster, im heutigen Bodh Gaya (बोधगया)
Abb.: Bodhimaṇḍa, 2004
[Bildquelle: FWBO photos. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/fwbo/179892524/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
The name given to the spot under the Bodhi tree where the Buddha attained Enlightenment and where he sat for one week after the Enlightenment (Vin.i.1; but according to DhA.i.71 he spent seven weeks there).
A monastery was later erected there called the Bodhimaṇḍa-vihāra.
Thirty thousand monks, under Cittagutta, came from there to the foundation ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xxix.41). It was near here that Buddhaghosa was born (Cv.xxxvii.215), and here Silākāla entered the Order (Cv.xxxix.47).
See also Bodhirukkha."
42 Candagutto mahāthero Vanavāsapadesato
Āgāsīti sahassāni ādiyitvā yatī idha.
Der große Thera Candagutta kam mit 80.000 Asketen aus dem Vanavāsa-Land1 hierher.
1 Vanavāsa vermutlich die heutige Kanara-Region (Kannaḍa, ಕನ್ನಡ). Siehe Mahāvaṃsa, Kapitel 12, Vers 31ff.
43 Suriyagutto mahāthero Kelāsamahāvihārato
Channavuti sahassāni bhikkhū ādāya āgamā.
Der große Thera Suriyagutta kam mit 96.000 Mönchen aus dem großen Kelāsa-Kloster1.
1 Kelāsa = Kailāśa (གངས་རིན་པོཅཧེ་; 冈仁波齐峰; कैलाश पर्वत)
Abb.: Lage des Kelāsa
Abb.: Kelāsa, 2004
[Bildquelle: Somesh Goyal. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/somesh-goyal/47882016/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-14]
Abb.: Landsat7 Satellite view of the Mount Kailash, draped over SRTM DEM with Lake Manasarovar (right) and Lake Rakshastal (left) in the foreground. (Image made with the visualisation software NASA World Wind (Open Source))
A mountain range in Himavā. It is one of the five ranges which stand round Anotatta and is of silver colour, two hundred leagues high, bent inwards "like a crow's beak." (SNA.ii.437f; MA.ii.585; UdA.300; AA.ii.759). It is sixty leagues in breadth, and ālavaka, on his way to his house, having heard to his great anger that the Buddha was there, placed his left foot on Manosilātala and his right on Kelāsakūta. The touch of his foot sent pieces of the rock flying, and his shout "I am ālavaka" was heard throughout Jambudīpa (SNA.i.223; SA.i.248).
Kelāsa is often used in similes to describe an object that is perfectly white (E.g., J.iv.232; vi.490, 515; the horse Kanthaka, Mbv.26; DhA.i.192; Cv.lxxiii.114), very stately (E.g., an elephant's head or a big building, J.i.321; v.52, 53; Cv.lxxviii.77), or difficult to destroy (E.g., J.v.39).
In the Mahāvastu (ii.97, 109; see also iii.309, 438), Kailāsa is mentioned as the abode of the Kinnaras.
In Sanskrit mythology, Kailāsa is given as the abode of the gods, chiefly Siva and Kubera. See, e.g., Epic Mythology passim and Ved. Ind. s.v. The mountain range has been identified as belonging to the trans-Himālayan system and consisting of a group of mountains over twenty thousand feet in height (see Cv.Trs.i.280, n.4)."
"Mount Kailash (officially: Kangrinboqê; Tibetan: Gang Rinpoche, གངས་རིན་པོཅཧེ་; Wylie: Gangs Rin-po-che; ZWPY: Kangrinboqê; Simplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰; Traditional Chinese: 岡仁波齊峰; pinyin: Gāngrénbōqí Fēng; Hindi कैलाश पर्वत, Kailāśā Parvata) is a peak in the Gangdisê mountains, the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia—the Indus River, the Sutlej River and the Brahmaputra River—and is considered as a sacred place in four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Bön faith. The mountain lies near Lake Manasarowar [玛法木错湖] and Lake Rakshastal [拉昂错] in Tibet.
The word Kailāśā means "crystal" in Sanskrit. The Tibetan name for the mountain is Gangs Rin-po-che, meaning "precious jewel of snows". Another local name for the mountain is Tisé (Tibetan: ཏི་སེ་) mountain. In the Jain tradition, the mountain is referred to as Ashtapada.Religious significance
An illustration of the Hindu significance of Mount Kailash, depicting the holy family of Shiva and Ganesha
According to Hindu mythology, Shiva, the God of destruction and regeneration, resides at the summit of a legendary mountain named Kailāśā. This Kailāśā is regarded in many sects of Hinduism as paradise, the ultimate destination of souls and the spiritual center of the world.Some traditions also aver that the mountain is Shiva's linga and Lake Manasarowar below is the yoni of His consort. According to one description found in the Puranas, Mount Kailash is the center of the world, its four faces are made of crystal, ruby, gold, and lapis lazuli. It is the pillar of the world; is 84,000 leagues high; is the center of the world mandala; and is located at the heart of six mountain ranges symbolizing a lotus. The four rivers flowing from Kailash then flow to the four quarters of the world and divide the world into four regions.
The largest and most important rock-cut temple at Ellora [वेरूळ] in Maharashtra is named after Mount Kailash. Many of its sculptures and reliefs depict episodes relating to Shiva and Parvati, including the demon Ravana's attempt to shake Mount Kailash.In Buddhism
The Tantric Buddhists believe that Kailash is the home of the Buddha Demchok (also known as Demchog or Chakrasamvara), who represents supreme bliss. It is said that Milarepa, champion of Tantric Buddhism, arrived in Tibet to challenge Naro-Bonchung, champion of the Bön religion of Tibet. The two magicians engaged in a terrifying sorcerous battle, but neither was able to gain a decisive advantage. Finally, it was agreed that whoever could reach the summit of Kailash most rapidly would be the victor. While Naro-Bonchung sat on a magic drum and soared up the slope, Milarepa's followers were dumbfounded to see him sitting still and meditating. Yet when Naro-Bonchung was nearly at the top, Milarepa suddenly moved into action and overtook him by riding on the rays of the sun, thus winning the contest and bringing Buddhism to Tibet.In Jainism
The Jains who refer to the Kailash as Mount Ashtapada believe the founder of their faith, Rishabhadeva attained Nirvana at this place.In Bon faith
The Bön, the religion which predates Buddhism in Tibet, maintain that the entire mystical region and the Nine story Swastika Mountain is the seat of all Spiritual power.Pilgrimage
Every year, thousands make a pilgrimage to Kailash, following a tradition going back thousands of years. Pilgrims of several religions believe that circumambulating Mount Kailash on foot is a holy ritual that will bring good fortune. The peregrination is made in a clockwise direction by Hindus and Buddhists. Followers of the Jain and Bönpo religions circumambulate the mountain in a counterclockwise direction. The path around Mount Kailash is 52 km (32 mi) long.
Some pilgrims believe that the entire walk around Kailash should be made in a single day. This is not easy; a person in good shape walking fast would take perhaps 15 hours to complete the 52 km trek. Many of the devout do accomplish this feat, little daunted by the uneven terrain, altitude sickness and harsh conditions faced in the process. Indeed, some pilgrims venture a much more demanding regimen, performing body-length prostrations over the entire length of the circumambulation: The pilgrim bends down, kneels, prostrates full-length, makes a mark with his fingers, rises to his knees, prays, and then crawls forward on hands and knees to the mark made by his/her fingers before repeating the process. It requires at least four days of physical endurance to perform the circumambulation while following this regimen.
According to all religions that revere the mountain, setting foot on its slopes is a dire sin. It is claimed that many people who ventured to defy the taboo have died in the process.
The mountain is located in a particularly remote and inhospitable area of the Tibetan Himalayas. Few but those in the best health are able to undertake the journey even to the starting point of the circumambulation, leave alone walk 52 km in a single day. A few modern amenities, such as benches, resting places and refreshment kiosks, exist to aid the pilgrims in their devotions.
When the Chinese army entered Tibet in 1950, Tibet was closed off to the outside world and the pilgrimages ceased. However, following improvement in Sino-Indian relations in 1979, the government permitted pilgrimages to Mount Kailash to resume.
Following political disturbance and border disturbances across the Chinese-Indian boundary, pilgrimage to the legendary abode of Lord Shiva was stopped from 1959 to 1980. Thereafter a limited number of Indian pilgrims are allowed to visit the place, under the supervision of the Chinese and Indian governments. It is a lengthy and hazardous trek over the Himalayan terrain.
Alternatively, pilgrims travel by land from Kathmandu (also from Lhasa where flights from Kathmandu are available) to Tibet and thereafter travel over the great Tibetan plateau (ranging 10,000 to 16,000 feet) by car. It is a long journey with four night stops in camps/local settlements, finally arriving at Tarchen (4600 m) (said to be aberration of Sanskrit darshan).
Walking around the holy mountain (a part of its official park) has to be done on foot or pony; it takes three days of trekking starting from a height of around 15,000 ft to crossing the Dolma pass (19,000 ft) and encamping for two nights en route. First, near the meadow of Dirapuk gompa—2 or 3 km before the pass and second, after crossing the pass and going downhill as far as possible (viewing Gauri Kund in the distance)."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Kailash. -- Zugriff am 2006-07-15]
44 Bhikkhūnaṃ dīpavāsīnaṃ āgatānañ ca sabbaso
Gaṇanāya paricchedo porāṇehi na bhāsito.
Die Alten nennen keine Gesamtzahl für die auf der Insel (Laṅkā) wohnenden Mönche, die gekommen sind.
45 Samāgatānaṃ sabbesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ taṃsamāgame
Vuttā khīṇasavā yeva te channavutikoṭiyo.
Es wird berichtet, dass unter allen Mönchen, die zu dieser Versammlung gekommen waren, 960.000.0001 Arhants waren.
1 1 Koṭi = 107 (10 Millionen). 96 x 107 = 960 Millionen! Wenn es berichtet (vutta) wird, kann es offenbar noch so ein Blödsinn sein, es wird geglaubt.
46 Te Mahācetiyaṭṭhānaṃ parivāretvā yathārahaṃ
Majjhe ṭhapetvā okāsaṃ rañño aṭṭhaṃsu bhikkhavo.
Diese Mönche standen in ihrer Rangordnung um den Bauplatz des großen Cetiya und ließen in der Mitte Platz für den König.
47 Pavisitvā tahiṃ rājā bhikkhusaṅghaṃ tathā ṭhitaṃ
Disvā pasannacittena vanditvā haṭṭhamānaso.
Als der König eingezogen war, grüßte er die dort stehende Mönchsgemeinde mit gläubigem Gemüt und freudigem Herzen.
48 Gandhamālāhi pūjetvā katvāna tipadakkhiṇaṃ
Majjhe puṇṇaghaṭaṭṭhānaṃ pavisitvā samaṅgalaṃ
Er verehrte sie mit duftenden Blumenkränzen, ging dreimal mit der rechten Schulter gegen sie gewendet1 um sie und trat dann in die Mitte zur Stelle, wo die vollen Krüge2 und der Glücksziegelstein3 waren.
1 padakkhiṇa: die höfliche Form der Begrüßung
2 volle Krüge: siehe unten Vers 57
3 maṅgala steht hier wohl für maṅgalaṭṭhika "Glücksziegelstein" (= Grundstein) (siehe oben Vers 15, unten Vers 59)
49 Suvaṇṇakhīle paṭimukkaṃ paribbhamaṇadaṇḍakaṃ
Rajatena kataṃ suddhaṃ suddhapītibalodayo
50 Gāhayitvā amaccena maṇḍitena sujātinā
Dann ließ er, dem die Entfaltung der Wesen das wichtigste war, durch reines Entzücken angetrieben, einen geschmückten, adeligen, sehr glücksverheißenden Minister den silbernen Stab für das Ziehen des Umkreises ergreifen, der an einem goldenen Pflock befestigt1 war.
1 es waren also Mittel für eine "Gärtnerkonstruktion": in der Mitte ein Pflock, daran eine Schnur in der Länge des Radius, daran ein Stab zum Zeichnen des Kreises.
51 Mahantaṃ cetiyāvaṭṭaṃ kāretuṃ katanicchayo
Bhamāpayitum āraddho parikammakatabhūmiyaṃ.
Er war entschlossen, einen großen Kreis für das Cetiya ziehen zu lassen. Deshalb begann er, den Minister im Kreis herumlaufenzulassen um das zubereitete Fundament.
52 Siddhattho nāma nāmena mahāthero mahiddhiko
Tathā karontaṃ rājānaṃ dīghadassī nivārayi.
Der große, wundermächtige Thera Siddhata hielt weitsichtig den König, der so handelte, ab.
53 Evaṃ mahantaṃ thūpañ ce ayaṃ rājārabhissati
Thūpe aniṭṭhite yeva maraṇaṃ assa hessati;
"Wenn dieser König einen so großen Stūpa beginnt, wird er sterben bevor der Stūpa vollendet ist.
54 Bhavissati mahanto ca thūpo duppaṭisaṅkharo,
Iti so 'nāgataṃ passaṃ mahantattaṃ nivārayi.
Ein großer Stūpa wird auch schwer zu reparieren." Indem er so in die Zukunft voraussah, hielt er von einer solchen Größe ab.
55 Saṅghassa ca anuññāya therasambhāvanāya ca
Mahantaṃ kattukāmo pi gaṇhitvā therabhāsitaṃ.
56 Therassa upadesena tassa rājā akārayi
Majjhimaṃ cetiyāvaṭṭaṃ patiṭṭhāpetum iṭṭhakā.
55. - 56.
Weil die Mönchsgemeinde dem Thera zustimmte und aus Ehrfurcht vor dem Thera nahm der König, obwohl er einen großen Stūpa bauen wollte, das Wort des Thera an und veranlasste, dass die Glücksziegelsteine1 nach der Anweisung des Thera auf einer mittleren Kreisfläche für das Cetiya ausgelegt wurden.
1 entsprechen unseren Grundsteinen, siehe oben Vers 15
57 Sovaṇṇarajate ceva ghaṭe majjhe ṭhapāpayi
Aṭṭhaṭṭha aṭṭhitussāho, parivāriya te pana
58 Aṭṭhuttarasahassañ ca ṭhapāpesi nave ghaṭe
Aṭṭhuttare aṭṭhuttare vatthānaṃ tu sate pana
59 Iṭṭhakā pavarā aṭṭha ṭhapāpesi visuṃ visuṃ.
57. - 59a.
In die Mitte stellte er mit unaufhörlichem Eifer je acht goldene und silberne Krüge. Um diese herum stellte er 10081 neue Krüge, um diese herum legte er je 1082 Kleidungsstücke. Acht beste Ziegel stellte er einzeln auf3.
1 1008 ist eine vollkommene, heilige Zahl [1008 = 7x9x(7+9)], die im Hinduismus in vielen Zusammenhängen vorkommt (z.B. 1008 Namen und Anrufungen einer Gottheit
2 108 ist ebenfalls eine vollkommene, heilige Zahl [108 = 11x22x33 ]. 108 ist die Zahl der Perlen des indischen Rosenkranzes (mālā) und damit die Zahl der Namen der Gottheit, die angerufen werden
3 in den vier Haupt- (N, O, S, W) und Nebenwindrichtungen (NO, SO, SW, NW)
Sammatena amaccena bhusitena anekadhā
60 Tato ekaṃ gāhayitvā nānāmaṅgalasaṃkhate
Puratthimadisābhāge paṭhamaṃ maṅgaliṭṭhakaṃ
61 Patiṭṭhāpesi sakkaccaṃ manuññe gandhakaddame;
59b. - 61a.
Er ließ einen dafür beauftragten Minister, der vielfältig geschmückt war, einen von diesen nehmen und ließ ihn als ersten Glücksziegelstein feierlich auf die Ostseite auf angenehm riechenden Schlamm legen. Die Stelle war mit vielen glücksbringenden Zeremonien vorbereitet worden.
Jātisumanapupphesu pūjitesu tahiṃ pana
62 Ahosi pathavīkampo; sesā sattāpi sattahi
Patiṭṭhāpesi 'maccehi maṅgalāni va kārayi.
61b - 62.
Als aber dort Jasminblüten1 dargebracht wurden, bebte die Erde. Auch die übrigen sieben Glücksziegelsteine ließ er von sieben Ministern legen und ließ die Glückszeremonien vollziehen.
1 Jasminblüten: Jasminum grandiflorum
Abb.: Jasminketten, Mumbai (मुंबई), 2006
[Bildquelle: reidmix. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/reidmix/143877618/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung). -- Zugriff am 2006-07-15]
63 Evaṃ Āsāḷhamāsassa sukkapakkhamhi sammate
Uposathe paṇṇarase patiṭṭhāpesi iṭṭhakā.
So ließ er am ehrwürdigen Vollmondtag in der hellen Hälfte des Monats Āsāḷha1 die Glücksziegelsteine legen.
1 Āsāḷha: 4. Monat des indischen Mondkalenders (Mai/Juni bzw. Juni/Juli).
64 Catuddisaṃ ṭhite tattha mahāthere anāsave
Vanditvā pūjayitvā ca suppatīto kamena so
65 Pubbuttaradisaṃ gantvā Piyadassiṃ anāsavaṃ
Vanditvāna mahātheraṃ aṭṭhāsi tassa santike.
64. - 65.
Er grüßte die in den vier Haupthimmelrichtungen stehenden Arahant-Theras, verehrte sie, dann ging er sehr heiter ordnungsgemäß zum nordöstlichen Punkt, begrüßte den großen Thera und Arahant Piyadassi und stellte sich zu ihm.
66 Maṅgalaṃ tattha vaḍḍhento tassa dhammam abhāsi
Therassa desanā tassa janassāhosi sātthikā.
Dieser predigte ihm dort die Lehre und vermehrte so das Glücksbringende. Die Predigt des Thera war für das Volk nutzreich.
67 Cattāḷīsasahassānaṃ dhammābhisamayo ahu;
Cattāḷīsasahassānaṃ sotāpattiphalaṃ ahu.
40.000 erfassten die Lehre, 40.000 erlangten die Frucht des Stromeintritts1.
1 Frucht des StromeintrittsMagga m. -- Weg
- sotāpatti-magga m. -- Weg des Stromeintrittes
- sakad-āgāmī-magga m. -- Weg des Einmalwiederkehrers
- an-āgāmī-magga m. -- Weg des Nichtwiederkehrers
- arahatta-magga m. -- Weg der Arahatschaft
magga -- Weg ist ist "eine Bezeichnung für den beim Eintritt in eine der 4 Stufen der Heiligkeit aufblitzenden und das Leben für immer umgestaltenden Hellblick in die Vergänglichkeit, das Elend und die Unpersönlichkeit alles Daseins." [Nyanatiloka <Thera> <1878 - 1957>: Buddhistisches Wörterbuch : kurzgefasstes Handbuch der buddhistischen Lehren und Begriffe in alphabetischer Anordnung. -- 5. Aufl., (Unveränd. Nachdr. der 2., rev. Aufl.). -- Stammbach : Beyerlein und Steinschulte, 1999. -- 277 S. ; 18 cm. -- Originaltitel: Buddhist dictionary. -- ISBN: 3-931095-09-6. -- S. 33. -- Hier können Sie dieses Werk bestellen: http://www.buddhareden.de/fr-bestellung.htm ] s. phala
(Visuddhimagga 672 - 678; Th III, 319 - 328; Nāṇamoli 785 - 792)Phala n. -- Frucht
- sotāpatti-phala n. -- Frucht des Stromeintrittes
- sakad-āgāmī-phala n. -- Frucht des Einmalwiederkehrers
- an-āgāmī-phala n. -- Frucht des Nichtwiederkehrers
- arahatta-phala n. -- Frucht der Arahatschaft
phala -- Frucht = "Die unmittelbar" auf magga (s. oben) "folgenden und bis zur Erreichung der hören Pfade unter Umständen noch unzählige Male sich wiederholenden Bewusstseinsmomente". (Nyanatiloka, Wörterbuch, S. 34)
(Saṅgītisutta : Dīghanikāya III, 227; Nal III, 178, 7-8; Th 11, 240; Visuddhimagga 672 - 678; Th 319 - 328; Nāṇamoli 785 792)
68 Sahassaṃ sakadagāmī anāgami ca tattakā;
Sahassaṃ yeva arahanto tatthāhesuṃ gihījanā.
Tausend Laien wurden dabei Einmalwiederkehrer, ebensoviele Nichtwiderkehrer, tausend wurden Arhants.1
1 Ariya-puggala m. -- Edle Personen
- sotāpanna m. -- Stromeingetretener: hat die ersten drei saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln überwunden, nämlich:
- 1. sakkāya-diṭṭhi f. -- Falscher Glaube an ein Ich
- 2. vicikicchā f. -- Zweifel
- 3. sīla-bbata-parāmasa m. -- Hängen an Sittlichkeit und religiösen Gelübden
- sakad-āgāmī m. -- Einmalwiederkehrer: hat die ersten drei saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln überwunden; hat nur noch ganz schwach folgende Fesseln:
- 4. kāma-chanda m. -- Gier nach Objekten der Sinneswelt
- 5. vyāpāda m. -- Übelwollen
- an-āgāmī m. -- Nicht-Wiederkehrer hat die ersten fünf saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln d.h. alle niederen Fesseln) überwunden.
- arahanta m. -- Arahat hat alle zehn saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln überwunden, nämlich die genannten niedrigen und folgende höhere:
- 6. rūpa-rāga m. -- Gier nach der feinstofflichen Welt der Formen
- 7. a-rūpa-rāga m. -- Gier nach der unstofflichen Welt
- 8. māna m. -- Abhängigkeit vom sozialen Feld
- 9. uddhacca n. -- Aufgeregtheit
- 10. avijjā f. -- Nichtwissen
(z.B. Mahālisutta : Dīghanikāya I, 156; Nal I, 133, 1-19; Th 9, 199 - 120)
69 Aṭṭhārasa sahassāni bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo pana
Cuddaseva sahassāni arahatte patiṭṭhahuṃ.
18.000 Mönche und 14.000 Nonnen erreichten die Arhantschaft.
70 Evam pasannamatimā ratanattayamhī
Lokatthasiddhi paramā bhavatīti ñatvā
So soll man mit einem zu den drei Juwelen1 gläubigen Herzen Gefallen daran finden, viele Tugenden wie Glauben usf.2 zu haben, indem er erkennt, dass jemand, der ein zu Freigebigkeit entschlossenes Herz hat und dem am Heil der Menschheit liegt, die größte Nutzen für die Welt bewirkt.
(14 Silben: 8.6.; Schema: ta bha ja ja ga ga: uktā Vasantatilakā tabhajā jagau gaḥ)
1 drei Juwelen: Buddha, Buddhalehre (dhamma), Gemeinschaft der Erlösten (saṅgha)
2 Glauben usf.
- Vertrauen/Glauben (saddhā f.),
- Sittlichkeit (sīla n.),
- Freigebigkeit (cāga m.),
- Einsicht (paññā f.)
Sujanappasādasaṃvegatthāya kate Mahāvaṃse
Thūpārambho nāma ekūnatiṃsatimo paricchedo.
Zu Kapitel 30: Einrichtung der Reliquienkammer