Ausgewählte Erzählungen aus Somadeva's
Ozean der Erzählungsströme

5. Buch I, Welle 4

1. Vers 1 - 27:Fortsetzung der Geschichte Vararucis

verfasst von Somadeva

übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer

Zitierweise / cite as:

Somadeva <11. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Kathāsaritsāgara : der Ozean der Erzählungsströme : ausgewählte Erzählungen / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 5. Buch I, Welle 4. -- 1. Vers 1 - 27: Fortsetzung der Geschichte Vararucis. -- Fassung vom 2007-02-05. --    

Erstmals publiziert: 2006-11-24

Überarbeitungen: 2007-02-05 [Verbesserungen]; 2006-11-30 [Ergänzungen]; 2006-11-25 [Ergänzungen]

Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung WS 2006/07

©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers

Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Sanskrit  von Tüpfli's Global Village Library

Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.

Der Sanskrit-Text folgt im Wesentlichen folgender Ausgabe:

Somadevabhaṭṭa <11. Jhdt.>: Kathāsaritsāra / ed. by Durgāprasād and Kāśīnāth Pāṇḍurāṅg Parab. -- 4. ed. / revised by Wāsudev Laxman Śāstrī Paṇśikar. -- Bombay : Nirnaya-Sagar Press, 1930, -- 597 S. -- [in Devanāgarī]

Die Verse sind, wenn nichts anderes vermerkt ist, im Versmaß Śloka abgefasst.

Definition des Śloka in einem Śloka:

śloke ṣaṣṭhaṃ guru jñeyaṃ
sarvatra laghu pañcamam
dvicatuṣpādayor hrasvaṃ
saptamaṃ dīrgham anyayoḥ

"Im Śloka ist die sechste Silbe eines Pāda schwer, die fünfte in allen Pādas leicht
Die siebte Silbe ist im zweiten und vierten Pāda kurz, lang in den beiden anderen."

Das metrische Schema ist also:

 ̽  ̽  ̽  ̽ ˘ˉˉ ̽ 
 ̽  ̽  ̽  ̽ ˘ˉ˘ ̽ 

 ̽  ̽  ̽  ̽ ˘ˉˉ ̽ 
 ̽  ̽  ̽  ̽ ˘ˉ˘ ̽

Zur Metrik siehe:

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Einführung in die Exegese von Sanskrittexten : Skript.  -- Kap. 8: Die eigentliche Exegese, Teil II: Zu einzelnen Fragestellungen synchronen Verstehens. -- Anhang B: Zur Metrik von Sanskrittexten. -- URL:



Der von großen Dichter, dem Ehrwürdigen Gelehrten Somadeva verfasste Ozean der Erzählungsströme


Zu Autor und Werk siehe:

Somadeva <11. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Kathāsaritsāgara : der Ozean der Erzählungsströme : ausgewählte Erzählungen / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 1. Einleitung. --

caturthas taraṅgaḥ

ity ākhyāya kathāṃ madhye
vindhyāntaḥ kāṇabhūtaye |
punar vararucis tasmai
prakṛtārtham avarṇayat |1|

1. Mit diesen Worten erzählte Vararuci mitten im Vindhyagebirge1 dem Kāṇabhūti die Geschichte. Dann erzählte er ihm das Hauptthema2 weiter.


1 Vindhya

Abb.: Lage des Vindhyagebirges
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

2 Hauptthema: nämlich Vararucis eigene Geschichte

evaṃ vyāḍīṇdradattābhyāṃ
saha tatra vasan kramāt |
prāpto 'haṃ sarvavidyānāṃ
pāram utkrāntaśaiśavaḥ |2|

2. "Während ich so mit Vyāḍi und Indradatta dort weilte, erreichte ich schrittweise Vollkommenheit in allen Wissenschaften und entwuchs der Kindheit.

indrotsavaṃ kadācic ca
prekṣituṃ nirgatā vayam |
kanyām ekām apaśyāma
kāmasyāstram asāyakam |3|

3. Einst gingen wir aus, um uns ein Indrafest1 anzuschauen. Da sahen wir ein Mädchen, der Bogen1 ohne Pfeil des Liebesgottes.


1 Indra

"Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the chief deity of the Rigveda, and the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism.


Vedic Indra

The Rig-Veda states,

He under whose supreme control are horses, all chariots, and the villages, and cattle;
He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, He, O men, is Indra. (2.12.7, trans. Griffith)

Indra is the chief god of the Rigveda (besides Agni). He delights in drinking Soma, and the central Vedic myth is his heroic defeat of Vritra, liberating the rivers, or alternatively, his smashing of the Vala, a stone enclosure where the Panis had imprisoned the cows, and Ushas (dawn). He is the god of war, smashing the stone fortresses of the Dasyu, and invoked by combatants on both sides in the Battle of the Ten Kings.

The Rig-Veda frequently refers to him as Śakra - the mighty-one. In the Vedic period, the number of gods was assumed to be thirty-three and Indra was their lord. (The slightly later Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad enumerates the gods as the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, Indra and Prajapati). As lord of the Vasus, Indra was also referred to as Vāsava.

By the age of the Hindu epics, Indra became the prototype for all lords and thus a king could be called Mānavendra (Indra or lord of men) and Rama, the hero of the Ramayana, was referred to as Rāghavendra (Indra of the clan of Raghu). Hence the original Indra was also referred to as Devendra (Indra of the Devas). However, Sakra and Vasava were used exclusively for the original Indra. Though, modern texts usually adhere to the name Indra, the traditional Hindu texts (the Vedas, epics and Puranas) use Indra, Sakra and Vasava interchangeably and with the same frequency.

In Hinduism

Status and function

Indra is an important god in many tales and epics. He leads the Devas (the gods who form and maintain Heaven and the elements, such as Agni (Fire), Varuna (Water) and Surya (Sun)), and constantly wages war against the demonic Asuras of the netherworlds, or Patala, who oppose morality and dharma. He thus fights in the timeless battle between good and evil. In addition, he is one of the Guardians of the directions, representing the east.

Vaishnavites and most modern Hindus, see Indra as minor deity and contemporary Hindus often worship a personal supreme God such as Shiva, Vishnu, Devi or Surya, seen by them as the great god. A puranic story illustrating the subjugation of Indra's pride is illustrated in the story of Govardhan hill where Krishna, avatar or incarnation of Vishnu carried the hill and protected his devotees when Indra, angered by non-worship of him, launched rains over the village.


In art, Indra is depicted as a muscular, red man, sometimes with four very long arms.

Indra's weapon, which he used to kill Vritra, (with the help of other gods), is the thunderbolt (Vajra), though he also uses a bow, a net and a hook. He rides a large, four-tusked albino elephant called Airavata. When portrayed having four arms, he has lances in two of his hands which resemble elephant goads. When he is shown to have two, he holds the Vajra and a bow (Masson-Oursel and Morin, 326).

Indra lives in Svarga in the clouds around Mt. Meru. Deceased warriors go to his hall after death, where they live without sadness, pain or fear. They watch the Apsaras and the Gandharvas dance, and play games. The gods of the elements, celestial sages, great kings and warriors enrich his court.

Relations with other gods

He is married to Indrani (whose father, Puloman, Indra killed), and is the father of Arjuna (by Kunti), Jayanta, Midhusa, Nilambara, Khamla, Rbhus, Rsabha. Indra is also the father of Vali and Surya. He is attended to by the Maruts (and the Vasus), children of Diti and Rudra. Indra had murdered Diti's previous children, so she hoped her son would be more powerful than him and kept herself pregnant for a century, practicing magic to aid her fetal son. When Indra discovered this, he threw a thunderbolt at her and shattered the fetus into 7 or 49 parts; each part regenerated into a complete individual, and the parts grew into the Maruts, a group of storm gods, who are less powerful than Indra.

According to one belief, Indra pulled his father, Dyaus Pita, from the sky by the foot; he fell to his death; afterwards, Indra married his mother Prthivi, who supported the murder.

Some scholars have also argued that there is a continuity between Indra and Shiva (Rudra).

Stories about Indra

Indra is not a perfect being, and is ascribed with more human characteristics and vices than any other Vedic deity. Perhaps consequently, he also has the most hymns dedicated to him: 250 (Masson-Oursel and Morin, 326). A well-known story about Indra tells of a sin that he committed and how he was punished for it.

Ahalya's curse

Indra had an affair with Ahalya, wife of Gautama Maharishi. He was punished by Gautama with a curse that one thousand phaluses would cover his body in a grotesque and vulgar display, and that his reign as king of the gods would meet with disaster and catastrophe. Gautama later commuted the curse, upon the pleading of Brahma, to one thousand eyes, instead of phaluses.

Due to this sin Indra's throne remains insecure forever. He is repeatedly humiliated by demonic kings like Ravana of Lanka, whose son Indrajit (whose name means victor over Indra) bound Indra in serpent nooses and dragged him across Lanka in a humiliating display. Ravana released Indra when Brahma convinced him to do so, but Indra, as the defeated, had to pay tribute and accept Ravana's supremacy. Indra realized the consequences of his sin, and was later avenged by the Avatara of Vishnu, Rama, who slew Ravana to deliver the three worlds from evil, as described in the epic Ramayana.

Indra and Vritra

Vritra (Verethra in Avesta), an asura, stole all the water in the world and Indra drank much Soma to prepare himself for the battle with the huge serpent. He passed through Vritra's ninety-nine fortresses, slew the monster and brought water back to Earth.

In a later version of the story, Vritra was created by Tvashtri to get revenge for Indra's murder of his son, Trisiras, a pious Brahmin whose increase of power worried Indra. Vritra won the battle and swallowed Indra, but the other gods forced him to vomit Indra out. The battle continued and Indra fled. Vishnu and the Rishis brokered a truce, and Indra swore he would not attack Vritra with anything made of metal, wood or stone, nor anything that was dry or wet, or during the day or the night. Indra used the foam from the waves of the ocean to kill him at twilight.

In yet another version, recounted in the Mahabharata, Vritra was a Brahmin who got hold of supernatural powers, went rogue and became a danger to the gods. Indra had to intervene, and slew him after a hard fight. A horrible goddess named Brāhmanahatya (the personified sin of Brahmin murder) came from the dead corpse of Vritra and pursued Indra, who hid inside a lotus flower. Indra went to Brahma and begged forgiveness for having killed a Brahmin. "Vajrayudha" which Indra possessed is believed to be prepared from backbone of a sage Dadhichi to kill Asuras.


In Buddhism and Jainism

Indra is rarely referred to in Buddhist texts, and when he is it is either as a minor deity (a lord of the yakṣas, for instance) or as the object of worship of the Brahmins. His place as ruler of the devas is taken by Śakra, ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa heaven. Śakra is, however, sometimes given the title Indra, or, more commonly, Devānām Indra, "Lord of the Devas".

In Jainism, Indra awards a golden robe to Mahavira, and later welcomes him into heaven."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2006-11-19]

2 wörtlich: "Der 'Pfeil und Bogen' (astra) ohne Pfeil". Der Bogen ist aus Zuckerrohr mit einer Sehne aus Bienen.

3 Liebesgott: Kāma

Abb.: Kāmadeva
[Bildquelle:āmadeva.htm. -- Zugriff am 2006-10-20]

"Kāma, Kāmadeva. The god of love. Eros [Ἔρως], Cupid. In the Ṛig-veda (x, 129) desire is said to have been the first movement that arose in the One after it had come into life through the power of fervour or abstraction. "Desire first arose in It, which was the primal germ of mind; (and which) sages, searching with their intellect, have discovered in their heart to be the bond which connects entity with non-entity." " It is well known," observes Dr. Muir, " that Greek mythology connected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe somewhat in the same way." " This Kāma or desire, not of sexual enjoyment, but of good to general, is celebrated in a curious hymn of the Atharva-veda," which exalts Kāma into a supreme God and Creator: " Kāma was born the first. Him neither gods, nor fathers, nor men have equalled. Thou art superior to these and for ever great" In another part of the same Veda Kāma appears to be first desire, then the power which gratifies the desire. Kāma is also in the same Veda often identified with Agni, and when " distinguished from each other, Kāma may be looked upon as a superior form of the other deity." According to the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, he is the son of Dharma, the god of justice, by Śraddhā, the goddess of faith; but according to the Hari-vaṃśa he is son of Lakshmī. Another account represents him as springing from the heart of Brahmaā. A fourth view is that he was born from water, wherefore he is called Irā-ja, 'the water-born;' a fifth is that he is Ātma-bhū, ' self-existent,' and therefore he is called, like other of the gods, A-ja, 'unborn,' or An-anya-ja, ' born of no other.' In the Purāṇas his wife is Rati or Revā, the goddess of desire He inspired Śiva with amorous thoughts of Pārvatī while he was engaged to penitential devotion, and for this offence the angry god reduced him to ashes by fire from his central eye. Śiva afterwards relented and allowod Kāma to be born again as Pradyumna, son of Kṛishṇa and Rukmiṇī or Māyā, 'delusion'. He has a son named Aniruddha, and a daughter, Tṛishā. He is lord of the Apsarases or heavenly nymphs. He is armed with a bow and arrows : the bow is of sugar-cane, the bowstring a line of bees, and each arrow is tipped with a distinct flower. He is usually represented as a handsome youth riding on a parrot and attended by nymphs, one of whom bears his banner displaying the Makara, or a fish on a red ground.

The mysterious origin of Kāma and the universal operation of the passion he inspires have accumulated upon him a great
variety of names and epithets. Among his names are Ishma, Kañjana and Kinkira, Mada, Rama or Ramaṇa, and Smara. As produced in the mind or heart he is Bhava-ja and Mano-ja. As Pradyumna, son of Kṛishṇa, he is Kārshṇī, and as son of Lakshmī he is Māyī or Māyā-suta and Śrī-nandana. As reduced to ashes by Śiva he is An-aṅga, ' the bodiless.' He is Abhi-rūpa, 'the beautiful;' Darpaka and Dīpaka, 'the inflamer;' Gada-yitnu, Gṛidhu, and Gṛitsa, 'lustful or sharp;' Kamana and Kharu,' desirous ;' Kandarpa,' the inflamer of Brahmā;' Kantu, 'the happy;' Kalākelī, ' the gay or wanton;' Māra, 'destroyer;' Māyī, 'deluder;' Madhu-dīpa, 'the lamp of honey or of spring;' Muhira, 'the bewilderer;' Murmura, ' the crackling fire;' Rāga-vṛinta, ' the stalk of passion;' Rūpāstra, 'the weapon of beauty;' Rata-nārīcha, 'the voluptuary;' Samāntaka, 'destroyer of peace;' Sansāra-guru, 'teacher of the world;' Smara, 'remembrance;' Śṛiṅgāra-yoni, 'source of love;' Titha, 'fire;' Vāma, 'the handsome.' From his bow and arrows he is called Kusumā-yudha, 'armed with flowers;' Pushpa-dhanus, 'whose bow is flowers;' and Pushpa-sara, 'whose arrows are flowers.' From his banner he is known as Makara-ketu; and from the flower he carries in his hand he is Pushpa-ketana."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]

indradatto mayā pṛṣṭas
tataḥ keyaṃ bhaved iti |
upavarṣasutā seyam
upakośeti so 'bravīt |4|

4. Ich fragte dann Indradatta, wer sie sei. Er antwortete, dass sie Upakośā, die Tochter Upavarṣas ist.

sā sakhībhiś ca māṃ jñātvā
prītipeśalayā dṛśā |
karṣantī manmanaḥ kṛcchrād
agacchad bhavanaṃ nijam |5|

5. Durch Freundinnen erfuhr sie, wer ich bin. Sie zog mit einem erfreut-anmutigem Blick mein Herz an. Nur zögernd ging sie nach Haus.

pūrṇacandramukhī nīla-
nīrajottamalocanā |
bhujā pīnastanojjvalā  |6|

6. Sie hatte ein Gesicht wie der Vollmond1, einmalige Augen wie ein Lotus2, Arme, die wie Lotusstengel3 tändelten, glänzende fette Brüste4.


Abb.: Upakośā?

[Bildquelle: dhyanji. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-24. -- AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

1 Vollmond

Abb.: Vollmond über Mukteshwar

[Bildquelle: Hemanshu Kumar. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

2 Lotos: nīlanīraja, damit ist vermutlich der echte Lotus Nelumbo (= nīlambuja) gemeint, der keine blauen Blüten hat (das nīla bezieht sich vermutlich überhaupt nicht auf die Farbe der geöffneten Blüten!). Da indische Frauen keine blauen Augen haben, bezieht sich der Vergleich vor allem auf die weiße Haut und den Glanz der Augen:

Abb.: Lotos - Nelumbo nucifera

[Bildquelle: van+s. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- AttributionNoncommercialShare Alike Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

Abb.: Lotos - Nelumbo nucifera
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia]

"Nelumbo nucifera is known by a number of common names, including Blue Lotus, Indian Lotus, Bean of India, and Sacred Water-lily. Botanically, Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) may also be referred to by its former names, Nelumbium speciosum (Wild.) or Nymphaea nelumbo. This plant is an aquatic perennial, but if its seeds are preserved under favorable circumstances, they may remain viable for many years.

In ancient Egypt, N. nucifera was unknown, being introduced only at the time of the Persian invasions, late in Egyptian history. The Egyptians venerated the blue water lily (Nymphaea caerulea) and used it in worship, but did not know the true lotus, Nelumbo.

N. nucifera was native to a huge area from modern Vietnam to Afghanistan, being spread widely as an ornamental and food plant. In 1787 it was first brought into horticulture in Western Europe as a stove-house water-lily under the patronage of Sir Joseph Banks and can be seen in modern botanical garden collections where heating is provided. Today it is rare or extinct in the wild in Africa but widely naturalized in southern Asia and Australia, where it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. It is the National Flower of India.

Fruit of Nelumbo nucifera; dried, the seed cup is commonly used in flower arrangements.

The roots of Nelumbo nucifera are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the water. The plant normally grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters. The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter.

There are a number of different cultivars, the flower colours varying from snow white to yellow to a light pink. It is hardy to USDA Zone 5. The plant can be propagated from seeds or rhizomes. The oldest seed that has yet been germinated into a viable plant was an approximately 1,300-year-old lotus fruit, recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China.


The flowers, seeds, young leaves and rhizomes are all edible. In Asia, the petals are sometimes used for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food. The rhizome (called 藕 in Chinese; pinyin: ǒu) is a common soup or stir-fry ingredient and is the part most commonly consumed. Petals, leaves, and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, though transmission of parasites should be a concern (e.g. Fasciolopsis buski).

Eating Lotus seeds

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea. The lotus seeds or nuts are quite versatile, and can be eaten raw or dried and popped like popcorn. They can also be boiled down until soft and made into a paste. Combined with sugar, lotus seed paste is a common ingredient in pastries such as mooncakes, daifuku and rice flour pudding.

Lotus roots (called bhe in some parts of India and Pakistan, and renkon in Japan) are used as a vegetable.

Various parts of the sacred lotus are also used in traditional Asian herbal medicine.

The distinctive dried seed heads resemble watering-cans, and are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging.

Religious symbolism

Hindus associate the lotus blossom with creation mythology, and with the gods Vishnu, Brahma, and Lakshmi. From ancient times the lotus has been a divine symbol in Hindu tradition. It is often used as an example of divine beauty, for example Sri Krishna is often described as the 'Lotus-Eyed One'. Its unfolding petals suggest the expansion of the soul. The growth of its pure beauty from the mud of its origin holds a benign spiritual promise. Both Brahma and Lakshmi, the divinities of potence and wealth, have the lotus symbol associated with them as their seats. In Hindi it is called कमल (Kāmal) which is also a popular name for men. The lotus flower is quoted extensively within Puranic and Vedic literature, for example.

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus leaf is untouched by water. Bhagavad Gita 5.10

Though just a flower, the lotus has many legends in regard to its mythical origin, which its great spiritual significance and the status with which a flower is not usually endowed, has inspired. More prominent is the legend of 'Samudra-manthana' - ocean churning.

It is said that once gods and demons reached an agreement that they would jointly churn the ocean to obtain from it nectar that it hid in its bottom. When the churning was in process, the ocean revealed fourteen precious jewels and lotus with Lakshmi mounting it was one of them.

Borrowing from Hinduism, in Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of body, speech, and mind, floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire. The Buddha is often depicted sitting on a giant lotus leaf or blossom.

Drawing in turn on these Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, the international Bahá'í community adopted this symbolism in the design of the "Lotus Temple" in New Delhi, India."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20]

3 Lotosstengel

Abb.: Lotos - Nelumbo nucifera

[Bildquelle: brewbooks. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- AttributionNoncommercialShare Alike Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

4 Fette Brüste

Abb.: Fresko, Sigiriya, Sri Lanka, 5. Jhdt. n. Chr.

[Bildquelle: genome4hire. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- AttributionShare Alike Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)] 

kambukaṇṭhī pravālābha-
radanacchadaśobhinī |
mandire vendirāparā |7|

7. Sie hatte einen Muschelhals1, prächtige korallenfarbig2 glänzende Lippen, sie war wie eine zweite Indirā3 in des Königs Sehnsuchtsgott4 Palast der Schönheit.


1 Muschel-Hals: ich kann die Muschel oder Schnecke, auf die angespielt ist, nicht identifizieren. Vielleicht handelt es sich um die Hinduglocke Turbinella pyrum

Abb.: Halsförmige Meeresschneckengehäuse, Rameswaram (இராமேஸ்வரம்)

[Bildquelle: kkalyan. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-24. -- Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung)]

2 korallenfarbig

Abb.: Rote Korallen

[Bildquelle: Narisa. -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20. -- AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Creative Commons Lizenz (Namensnennung, keine Bearbeitung, keine kommerzielle Nutzung)]

3 Indirā = Pracht, Schönheit, Name der Lakṣmī

Abb.: Lakṣmī
[Bildquelle: Wikipedia Commons]

4 Sehnsuchtsgott = Kāma

tataḥ kāmaśarāpāta-
nirbhinne hṛdaye na me |
niśi tasyām abhūn nidrā
tadbimbośṭhipapāsayā |8|

8. In jener Nacht fand mein Herz, das durch den Einbruch des Pfeils des Liebegottes aufgebrochen war, keinen Schlaf. Es dürstete nämlich nach ihren Bimbafrucht-Lippen1.


1 Bimba-Frucht: Coccinia grandis (Ivy gourd)

Abb.: Bimba-Frucht - Coccinia grandis

[Bildquelle: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS). -- -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20 

"Coccinia grandis, also called tindora, kundri, kundru, kowai, kovai, tindla, gentleman's toes (compare lady's fingers), thainli or ivy gourd, is a tropical vine grown for its small edible fruits. The may be eaten immature and green, or mature and deep red. The young shoots and leaves may also be eaten as greens.

Older botanical sources may call this plant C. cordifolia.

The fruit is eaten in Indian cuisine."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2006-11-20]s

kathaṃcil labdhanidro 'ham
apaśyaṃ rajanīkṣaye |
śuklāmbaradharāṃ divyāṃ
striyaṃ sā māṃ abhāṣata |9|

9. Als die Nacht zur Neige ging, fand ich irgendwie Schlaf. Da sah ich eine himmlische Frau in weißem Gewand. Sie sprach zu mir:

pūrvabhāryopakośā te
guṇajñā nāparaṃ patim |
kaṃcid icchaty ataś cintā
putra kāryātra na tvayā |10|

10. Upakośā war schon in einer früheren Geburt deine Gattin. Sie kennt die Tugend und wünscht deshalb keinen anderen Mann als Gatten. Deshalb, mein Sohn, musst du dir in dieser Sache keine Sorgen machen.

ahaṃ sadā śarīrāntar-
vāsinī te sarasvatī |
tvadduḥkhaṃ notsahe draṣṭum
ity uktvāntarhitābhavat |11|

11. Ich bin Sarasvatī1, die stets in deinem Körper wohnt. Ich kann dein Leid nicht ansehen." Sie sprach's und verschwand.


1 Sarasvatī

"SARASWATĪ ' Watery, elegant' In the Vedas, Saraswatī is primarily a river, but is celebrated in the hymns both as a river and a deity. The Saraswatī river was one boundary of Brahmavartta, the home of the early Āryans, and was to them, in all likelihood, a sacred river, as the Ganges has long been to their descendants. As a river goddess, Saraswatī is lauded for the fertilising and purifying powers of her waters, and as the bestower of fertility, fatness, and wealth. Her position as Vāch, the goddess of speech, finds no mention in the Rig-veda, but is recognised by the Brahmanas and the Mahā-bhārata. Dr. Muir endeavours to account for her acquisition of this character. He say, " When once the river had acquired a divine character, it was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her holy waters, and that her direction and blessing should be invoked as essential to their proper performance and success. The connection into which she was thus brought with sacred rites may have led to the further step of imagining her to have an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so important a part of the proceedings, and of identifying her with Vāch, the goddess of speech." In later times Saraswatī is the wife of Brahmā, the goddoss of speech and learning, inventress of the Sanskrit language and Deva-nagarī letters, and patroness of the arts and sciences. " She is represented as of a white colour, without any superfluity of limbs, and not unfrequently of a graceful figure, wearing a slender crescent on her brow and sitting on a lotus."-— Wilson. The same authority states that "the Vaishnavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife of Vishnu, as were also Lakshmī and Gangā. The ladies disagreed ; Saraswatī, like the other prototype of learned ladies, Minerva, being something of a termagant, and Vishnu finding that one wife was as much as he could manage, transferred Saraswatī to Brahma and Gangā to Śiva, and contented himself with Lakshmī alone. (See Vāch.) Other names of Saraswatī are Bhāratī, Brāhmī, Pūt-kārī, Śāradā, Vāgīśwarī. The river is now called Sarsuti. It falls from the Himalayas and is lost in the sands of the desert. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea. A passage in the Rig-veda says of it, " She who goes on pure from the mountains as far as the sea."—Max Muller, Veda, 45. According to the Mahā-bhārata it was dried up by the curse of the sage Utathya (q.v.)."

[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]

tataḥ prabuddhō jātāstho
gatvātiṣṭham ahaṃ śanaiḥ |
bālacūtataror adhaḥ |12|

12. Danach wachte ich auf, machte mich voller Verlangen auf und stellte mich vorsichtig unter einen jungen Mangobaum1 beim Palast der Geliebten.


1 Mangobaum: Mangifera sp.: Der Mangobaum kann bis zu 40 Meter hoch werden und an der Spitze eine Breite von 10 Metern erreichen.

athāgatya samākhyātaṃ
tatsakhyā mannibandhanam |
udgāḍham upakośāyā
navānaṅgavijṛmbhitam |13|

13. Da kam eine ihrer Frundinnen zu mir und erzählte mir, dass bei Upakośā eine Bindung an mich aufgetaucht sei, neu durch den Gliedlosen Gott1 aufgeblüht.


1 Gliedloser Gott: Kāma, siehe oben zu Vers 3.

tato 'ham dviguṇībhūta-
tāpas tām evam abravam |
adattāṃ gurubhiḥ sveccham
upakośāṃ katham bhaje |14|

14. Darauf hin verdoppelte sich meine Liebesglut und ich sprach zu ihr: "Wie könnte ich Upakośā nach eigenem Verlangen lieben, ohne dass sie mir von ihren Vormündern gegeben wäre?!

varaṃ hi mṛtyur nākīrtis
tatsakhīhṛdayaṃ tava |
gurubhir yadi buddhyeta
tat kadācic chivaṃ bhavet |15|

15. Denn Unehrenhaftigkeit ist nicht besser als der Tod. Wenn ihre Vormünder von dir erfahren würden, wie es um das Herz deiner Freundin steht, dann wird das vielleicht segensreich sein.

tad etat kuru bhadre tvaṃ
tāṃ sakhīṃ maṃ ca jīvaya |
tac chrutvā sā gatā sakhyā
mātuḥ sarvaṃ nyavedayat |16|

16. Meine Beste!, tu das! Schenke deiner Freundin und mir das Leben!" Darauf ging sie und berichtete der Mutter ihrer Freundin alles.

tayā tat kathitaṃ bhartur
upavarṣasya tatkṣaṇam |
tena bhrātuś ca varṣasya
tena tac cābhininditam |17|

17. Die Mutter erzählte es sofort ihrem Gatten Upavarṣa, dieser seinem Bruder Varṣa. Es fand dessen Wohlgefallen.

vivāhe niścite gatvā
vyāḍir ānayati sma tām |
kauśambyā jananīṃ mama |18|

18. Die Hochzeit wurde beschlossen. Vyāḍi ging auf Anweisung seines Lehrers Varṣa nach Kauśambī1 und holte meine Mutter her.


1 Kauśambī: vermutlich die beiden heutigen Kosam's (Kosam-Inam und Kosam-Khiraj) an der Yamunā ca. 60 km. oberhalb von Allahabad (इलाहाबाद; الاهاباد). Von Pāṭaliputra (Patna) bis Kauśambī sind es 380 km Luftlinie, hin und zurück also fast 800 km Luftlinie! Denkbar ist eine Flussreise: Pāṭaliputra - auf der Gaṅgā bis Prayāga (Allahabad) - auf der Yamunā bis Kauśambī.

Abb.: Lage von Kauśambī
(©MS Encarta)

Abb.: Strecke Pāṭaliputra - Kauśambī
(©MS Encarta)

Abb.: Triveni Sangam (Zusammenfluss der Flüsse Gaṅgā, Yamunā und der mythologischen Sarasvatī) in Allahabad (Prayāga) (Hindi: इलाहाबाद; Urdu: الاهاباد)
[Bildquelle. Wikipedia]

"Sangam or Triveni Sangam refers to the confluence of three rivers (Ganga, Yamuna and legendary Saraswati) near Allahabad, India.

About the Triveni Sangam

Samgam is the Sanskrit word for confluence. The Triveni Sangam in Allahabad is a confluence of three rivers, the Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati. Of these three, river Saraswati is invisible and is said to be flowing beneath the earth. It meets the other two rivers from the base. The point of confluence is a sacred place for the Hindus, as it is of high religious importance to the Hindus. A bath here is said to wash all the sins and free human from the cycle of birth. The site of Sangam is a treat to the eyes. One can see the muddy and pale yellow water of Ganges merging with green water of Yamuna. The Ganges is only 4 ft deep, while Yamuna is 40 ft deep near the point of nexus. The river Yamuna ends at this point and Ganges continues after this till it meets sea at Bay of Bengal.

Religious Importance

The Triveni Sangam is believed to be the same place where drops of Nectar fell out of the pitcher, from the hands of Gods. So it is believed that a bath in the Sangam will wash away all the sins and will clear the way to heaven. Devout Hindus from all over India come to this sacred pilgrimage point to offer prayers and take a dip in the holy waters. The Sacred Kumbh Mela is held every 12 years at the banks of the Sangam. According to myths, the Prakrista Yajna was performed here by Lord Brahma. That is how Allahabad received its ancient name, Prayag. Allahabad is also called Tirtha-Raja (Prayag Raj), king of all holy places. It is said that Lord Rama visited Allahabad when He was in exile.

Reaching there

The Triveni Sangam can be reached by Auto-rickshwas, Taxis or Buses. The site is located around 12 Km from the Railway station."

[Quelle: -- Zugriff am 2006-11-25]

athopakōśā vidhivat
pitrā me pratipāditā |
tato mātrā gṛhiṇyā ca
samaṃ tatrāvasaṃ sukham |19|

19.Dann übergab mir ihrer Vater Upakośā nach Recht und Sitte1. Dann wohnte ich dort2 mit meiner Mutter und mit meiner Hausfrau.


1 nach Recht und Sitte: siehe

Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashastra : Einführung und Überblick. -- 7. Eheschließung. -- URL:

2 d.i. in Pāṭaliputra (heutiges Patna)

atha kālena varṣasya
śiṣyavargo mahān abhūt |
tatraikaḥ pāṇinir nāma
jaḍabuddhitaro 'bhavat |20|

20. Im Lauf der Zeit wurde die Zahl der Schüler Varṣas groß. Darunter war ein Pāṇini1, ein äußerst begriffsstutziger, stumpfsinniger Kerl.


1 Pāṇini

"Das älteste uns erhaltene grammatische Lehrbuch ist die berühmte Grammatik (śabdānuśāsana) des Pāṇini, die Aṣṭādhyāyī, d. h. »die acht Abschnitte« (grammatischer Regeln)7. Pāṇinis Grammatik ist aber gewiss nur das Schlussergebnis einer vorausgehenden langen Entwicklung der grammatischen Wissenschaft.

7 Śabdānuśāsana, »Wortlehre«, ist der gewöhnliche Titel der Lehrbücher der Grammatik. Pāṇinis Grammatik herausgegeben, übersetzt, erläutert und mit verschiedenen Indices versehen von Otto Böhtlingk, Leipzig 1887. Die erste Ausgabe der Aṣṭādhyāyī (mit Kommentar) von Böhtlingk ist Bonn 1839—40 erschienen.

Sie ist kein Vedāṅga, sondern lehrt die vedische Grammatik nur mehr in der Form von Ausnahmen zu den grammatischen Regeln für das klassische Sanskrit. Aber die Grundlage für die Regeln des Pāṇini bildet ein Sprachgebrauch, der dem der Brāhmaṇas, Upaniṣads und Sūtras mehr entspricht als dem des klassischen Sanskrit1. Pāṇini selbst nennt zahlreiche Vorgänger, welche die Grammatik von ähnlichen Gesichtspunkten betrachteten wie er selbst. Seine Aṣṭādhyāyī setzt daher eine große Zahl verloren gegangener Werke voraus. Man pflegt die Zeit des Pāṇini um 350 v. Chr. anzusetzen2, aber irgendeine sichere Gewähr für dieses Datum gibt es nicht. Da er die Namen Yāska und Śaunaka erwähnt, muss er jünger sein als diese Verfasser von Vedāṅgatexten. Vor dem 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. kann er kaum gelebt haben3, und mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit wird man ihn wohl ins 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. setzen können, in eine Zeit, wo der Buddhismus noch nicht zu irgendeiner Bedeutung gelangt war4.

1 Nach R. G. Bhandarkar (JBRAS 16, 274) ist die Grammatik des Pāṇini die des »Middle Sanskrit«, während sein Nachfolger Kātyāyana schon die Grammatik des klassischen Sanskrit behandelt. S. auch Kielhorn, NGGW 1885, 185 ff.; Liebich, Pāṇini, S. 38 ff., und O. Wecker, Der Gebrauch der Kasus in der älteren Upaniṣad-Literatur, verglichen mit der Kasuslehre der indischen Grammatiker, Bezz. Beitr. 30, 1906, 1 ff., 177 ff.

2 Das Datum stützt sich nur auf die ganz märchenhafte, historisch wertlose Erzählung im Kathāsaritsāgara 4,20 ff. Was Tāranāth (übers, von Schiefner, S. 83 f.) von Vararuci und Pāṇini erzählt, ist ebenfalls ohne jede historische Grundlage. Über die Zeit des Pāṇini vgl. Th. Goldstücker, Pāṇini: his Place in Sanskrit Literature, London 1861; A.Weber, Ind. Stud. 1,141 ff.; 5,1 ff.; B. Liebich, Pāṇini, Leipzig 1891; R. O. Franke, GGA 1891, 951 ff. und Keith, HOS vol. 18, p. CLXVHIf.

3 Das ergibt sich daraus, dass Pāṇini 4, 1, 49 die Bildung des Wortes yavanānī lehrt. Ob dieses Wort eine »griechische Sklavin« oder die »griechische Schrift« bedeutet, jedenfalls kann es nicht vor der Zeit entstanden sein, wo die Griechen, als »Jonier« (Yavanas) bezeichnet, durch die Feldzüge von Darius und Xerxes nach Indien kamen. Vgl. A. Ludwig, Yavanānī (Sitzungsber. der k. böhm. Gesellschaft der Wiss. 1893, IX); G. Bühler, On the Origin of the Indian Brahma Alphabet, 2nd Ed., p. 21; A. B. Keith, Aitareya-Āraṇyaka, Introd. p. 21 ff.; Gaṇapati Śāstrī, Pratimānāṭaka, TSS Nr. 42, Introd. p. XXVIf., und Lüders, SBA 1919, S. 744.

4 R. G. Bhandarkar (JBRAS 16, p. 340 ff.) setzt Pāṇini mit Goldstücker in das 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Liebich, Pāṇini, S. 8, erklärt es zusammenfassend für wahrscheinlich, »dass Pāṇini nach Buddha, aber vor den Anfang der christlichen Zeitrechnung zu setzen ist«. V. A. Smith (JRAS 1919. 629) glaubt, dass Pāṇini nicht später als 600 v. Chr. gelebt hat.

Abb.: Lage von Attock - اٹک
(©MS Encarta)

Pāṇini ist geboren in dem Orte Śalātura (in der Nahe des heutigen Atak [Attock; Urdu: اٹک]) im nordwestlichen Indien. Eine zu seinem Andenken errichtete Statue gab es dort noch zur Zeit des Hiuen-Tsiang [玄奘], der auch eine Legende von dem »Ṛsi« Pāṇini erzählt, die er in Śalātura gehört hatte1. Fügen wir noch hinzu, dass seine Mutter Dākṣī hieß, weshalb er selbst manchmal »Sohn der Dākṣī« genannt wird, so haben wir alles gesagt, was wir von dem Leben des großen Grammatikers wissen. Nach einem Vers des Pañcatantra2 soll er von einem Löwen getötet worden sein.

1 Beal, Buddhist Records I, 114 ff. Unter dem Namen Śālāturīya wird Pāṇini in einer Kupferplatte aus dem 7. Jahrhundert n. Chr. zum erstenmal inschriftlich erwähnt.

2 Textus simplicior ed. Rühler, II, 33.

Wieviel Pāṇini in bezug auf Materialsammlung und in bezug auf Methode seinen Vorgängern verdankt, wissen wir nicht, da uns deren Werke nicht erhalten sind3. Aber eben dieser Umstand, dass die Werke seiner Vorgänger nicht weiter überliefert wurden, beweist, wie sehr er sie alle an Meisterschaft übertroffen hat. In der Tat ist die Grammatik des Pāṇini ein Werk, das nicht nur von den Indern alle Zeit hoch geschätzt worden ist, sondern auch die staunende Bewunderung aller europäischen Gelehrten hervorgerufen hat, die sich der Mühe unterzogen haben, in ihr Verständnis einzudringen.

3 Pāṇini selbst nennt zehn seiner Vorgänger mit Namen. Wahrscheinlich ist, dass er das grammatische System von seinen Vorgängern übernommen und es nur verbessert und ergänzt hat. Er bedient sich jedenfalls der Fachausdrucke älterer Grammatiker. Einige Sūtras des Pāṇini finden sich auch in Kātyāyanas Vājasaneyi-Prātiśākhya, und Liebich (Zur Einführung in die ind. einh. Sprachw. II, 42 ff.) ist geneigt anzunehmen, dass Pāṇini aus dem Prātiśākhya geschöpft hat. Es ist aber auch möglich, dass Kātyāyana und Pāṇini diese Sūtras aus einer älteren Grammatik entlehnt haben.

Pāṇinis Grammatik verfolgt den Zweck, dem Schüler die Möglichkeit zu geben, jede Form richtig zu bilden. Dabei geht sein Bestreben dahin, dies in möglichst kurz gefassten Regeln zu tun, die der Schüler auswendig zu lernen hat4. Diese Regeln haben daher die Gestalt algebraischer Formeln. An Stelle von Worten treten zum großen Teil Abkürzungen und Kombinationen von Buchstaben, deren Bedeutung vorerst gelernt werden muß1. Zum Verständnis einer jeden Regel ist es notwendig, die vorausgehenden Regeln im Kopfe zu haben. Außerdem ist es erforderlich, eine Anzahl Interpretationsregeln, Paribhāṣās, zu kennen, die für das ganze Werk gelten. Da alle Wörter und Wortformen von Verbalwurzeln abgeleitet werden, setzen die grammatischen Regeln auch die Kenntnis des Dhātupāṭha2 oder Wurzelverzeichnisses voraus, in dem sämtliche Wurzeln der Sanskritsprache systematisch angeordnet sind. Endlich wird auch für das Verständnis der Regeln der Gaṇapāṭha vorausgesetzt, d.i. eine »Liste von Wortgruppen«, die sich in bezug auf bestimmte Regeln in derselben Weise verhalten und auf die in den Sūtras selbst nur mit dem ersten Wort der Gruppe hingewiesen wird3. Nur durch dieses scharfsinnig ausgeklügelte System von Abkürzungen war es dem Pāṇini möglich, Sūtras von solcher Kürze zu bilden, dass sie oft nur aus einem oder zwei Wörtern oder auch nur aus wenigen Buchstaben bestehen, und eine vollständige Grammatik in den denkbar kürzesten Raum zusammenzufassen4. Als eine vollständige Grammatik kann man die Regeln des Pāṇini mit gutem Grund bezeichnen, denn sie behandeln nicht nur Lautlehre und Formenlehre, sondern auch die Wortbildungslehre und selbst die Syntax. Und diese Grammatik beruht auf genauer Beobachtung und Durchforschung des gesamten Sprachgebrauches, wie er sich dem Grammatiker einerseits in der Literatur und andrerseits in dem von den Gebildeten gesprochenen Sanskrit darbot. Auch lokale Verschiedenheiten hat er berücksichtigt; denn er erwähnt öfter die Lehren der »Östlichen« und der »Nördlichen», was gewöhnlich auf zwei Schulen von Grammatikern bezogen wird, was aber jedenfalls auch auf Verschiedenheit des Sprachgebrauches im Osten und im Norden hindeutet1.

4 Wie man in Indien die Regeln des Pāṇini auswendig lernt, schildert Ballantyne im Pandit, vol. I, 146 ff.

1 So bedeutet z.B. ac »Vokale«, hal »Konsonanten«, ku »Gutturale«, tiṅ »Personalendungen«, sup »Kasusendungen« usw.

2 Sowohl die Paribhāṣās als auch den Dhātupāṭha dürfte Pāṇini wenigstens zum Teil von seinen Vorgängern übernommen haben. Liebich (Zur Einführung in die ind. einh. Sprachw. II, 51 ff.) hält es für wahrscheinlich, dass Pāṇini den Dhātupāṭha »im großen und ganzen unverändert von seinen Vorgängern übernommen hat«. Nach Goldstücker (Pāṇini 106 ff.) gehen manche Paribhāṣās erst auf Patañjali zurück. Der Dhātupāṭha ist herausgegeben von N. L. Westergaard, Radices linguae Sanscritae, Bonnae ad Rh. 1841. Sowohl Dhātupāṭha als auch Gaṇapāṭha sind auch in Böhtlingks »Pāṇini« (1887) eingeschlossen. S. auch B. Liebich, Materialien zum Dhātupāṭha (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akad. d. Wiss. 1921).

3 Es heißt z.B. Pāṇini 4, 1, 110: »Von aśva usw. wird der Geschlechtsname mit dem Suffix āyana gebildet«, d. h. »von der im Gaṇapāṭha mit aśva beginnenden Gruppe von Wörtern«.

4 Von der Kürze der Regeln gibt vielleicht das letzte Sūtra in der Grammatik die beste Vorstellung. Es lautet: »a a« und wird von Böhtlingk übersetzt: »Das in der Grammatik als offen behandelte a ist in Wirklichkeit ein geschlossenes (d. i. ŏ).«

1 Schon Yāska erwähnt eine östliche und eine nördliche Schule von Grammatikern. Nach Liebich gehört Pāṇini, da sein Geburtsort im äußersten Norden Indiens gelegen ist, zu den »Nördlichen«. Nach R. O.Franke, GGA 1891, 957, 975 ff., stammt zwar Pāṇini aus dem Norden, ist aber nach dem östlichen Indien gekommen und daher zu den »östlichen« zu zählen.

Dass Pāṇini, wie manche ältere Forscher geglaubt haben, »eine Grammatik ohne Sprache« (Benfey) oder ein »Grammatiker-Sanskrit« (Whitney) gelehrt habe, dass die Wurzeln im Dhātupāṭha zum großen Teil erfunden seien, dass die Grammatiker Formen lehren, die in Wirklichkeit nicht vorkommen, dass Pāṇini eine mangelhafte Kenntnis des Veda gehabt habe, — alle diese Vorwürfe sind längst entkräftet worden2. Wenn manche abendländischen Gelehrten an der Grammatik des Pāṇini so viel auszusetzen haben — und sicher dürfte kein Europäer eine Grammatik so schreiben, wie sie Pāṇini geschrieben hat —, so vergessen sie nur, dass Pāṇini »sein wohl durchdachtes und nicht nur künstliches, sondern auch kunstvolles Lehrbuch für Einheimische, die im gewöhnlichen Verkehr Sanskrit reden hörten, nicht für Ausländer« geschrieben hat3.

2 Vgl. W. D.Whitney im American Journal of Philology, vol. 5, 1884, 279 ff.-, vol. 14, 171 ff.; GSAI 7, 1893, 243 ff. Dagegen Bühler, Ind. Ant. 23, 1894, 141 ff., 250 ff.; WZKM 8, 1894, 17 ff., 122 ff., und R. O. Franke, WZKM 8, 321 ff. L. v. Schroeder (ZDMG 49, 1895, 101 ff.) hat gezeigt, dass Pāṇini eine genaue Kenntnis des Kāṭhaka und der Maitrāyanī-Saṃhitā hatte.

3 Speyer, ZDMG 64, 1910, 322 f. Eine sehr eingehende Würdigung der Grammatik des Pāṇini und ihrer Verdienste um die Sprachwissenschaft gibt Th. Benfey, Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft, München 1869, S. 74 ff.

Während die von Pāṇini behandelte Sprache der der Brāhmaṇas, Upaniṣads und Kalpasūtras am nächsten steht, haben seine Nachfolger Kātyāyana und Patañjali im wesentlichen schon die Sprache der klassischen Sanskritliteratur im Auge.

Patañjali ist der Verfasser des Mahābhāṣya, d. h. des »Großen Kommentars«1. Das ist aber kein Kommentar zu Pāṇinis Regeln, sondern zu den Vārttikas des Kātyāyana, die in dem Mahābhāṣya eingeschlossen sind2. Auch die Vārttikas sind kein Kommentar zu Pāṇinis Grammatik, sondern kritische, erklärende und ergänzende Anmerkungen zu einzelnen Regeln. Kātyāyana ist nicht, wie manche geglaubt haben, ein Gegner, sondern vielmehr ein Bewunderer und Anhänger des Pāṇini, der die Regeln des Meisters und die gegen sie erhobenen Einwände leidenschaftslos prüft, entweder diese Einwände ablehnt oder die Regeln verbessert und nur in seltenen Fällen die Regeln des Pāṇini verwirft. Häufig enthalten die Vārttikas Ergänzungen, die zum Teil auf wirklichen Mängeln von Pāṇinis Lehre beruhen, zum Teil aber auch darin ihren Grund haben, dass der Sprachgebrauch in der zwischen Pāṇini und Kātyāyana verflossenen Zeit sich geändert hatte. Diese Vārttikas sind im allgemeinen kurze Sätze in Prosa im Stil der Sūtras, aber nicht von solcher Kürze, wie die Sūtras des Pāṇini. Es gibt aber auch Vārttikas in Versen (ślokavārttika), die nur zum Teil von Kātyāyana selbst, zum Teil von anderen Vorgängern des Patanjali herrühren. Außerdem gibt es im Mahābhāṣya auch zusammenfassende Memorialverse (kārikā), die verschiedene Verfasser haben3.

1 Eine gute kritische Ausgabe verdanken wir F. Kielhorn in BSS, 2nd revised Ed. 1906 ff.

2 Vgl. F. Kielhorn, Kātyāyana and Patañjali: their relation to each other and to Pāṇini, Bombay 1876. Nur zu etwa einem Drittel der Sūtras des Pāṇini gibt es Vārttikas, und sie sind nur mit dem Mahābhāṣya überliefert worden. Handschriften, die nur die Vārttikas enthalten, sind jüngere Kompilationen aus dem Mahābhāṣya.

3 Nach Goldstücker, Pāṇini p. 96 ff., rühren weder die Vārttikas in Prosa, noch die Ślokavārttikas, noch die Kārikās von einem Verfasser her. Über die Kārikās im Mahābhāṣya s. Kielhorn, Ind. Ant. 15, 1886, 228 ff."

[Quelle: Winternitz, Moriz <1863 - 1937>: Geschichte der indischen Literatur. Stuttgart : Koehler. -- Band 3: Die Kunstdichtung, die wissenschaftliche Literatur, neuindische Literatur. - 1920. -- S. 382 - 387.]

sa śuśrūṣāparikliṣṭaḥ
preṣito varṣabhāryayā |
agacchat tapase khinno
vidyākāmo himālayam |21|

21. Er litt sehr unter dem Gehorsam1. Die Gattin Varṣas warf ihn hinaus. Bedrückt ging er zum Himalaya2, um dort wissbegierig Askese zu üben.


1 Gehorsam: vgl. Manu II,191 - 237

codito guruṇā nityam apracodita eva vā |
kuryād adhyayane yatnam ācāryasya hiteṣu ca |191|
śarīraṃ caiva vācaṃ ca buddhīndriyamanāṃsi ca |
niyamya prāñjalis tiṣṭhed vīkṣamāṇo guror mukham |192|
nityam uddhṛtapāṇiḥ syāt sādhvācāraḥ susaṃvṛtaḥ |
āsyatām iti coktaḥ sann āsītābhimukhaṃ guroḥ |193|
hīnānnavastraveṣaḥ syāt sarvadā gurusannidhau |
uttiṣṭhet prathamaṃ cāsya caramaṃ caiva saṃviśet |194|
pratiśrāvaṇasaṃbhāṣe śayāno na samācaret |
nāsīno na ca bhuñjāno na tiṣṭhan na parāṅmukhaḥ |195|
āsīnasya sthitaḥ kuryād abhigacchaṃs tu tiṣṭhataḥ |
pratyudgamya tv āvrajataḥ paścād dhāvaṃs tu dhāvataḥ |196|
parāṅmukhasyābhimukho dūrasthasyaitya cāntikam |
praṇamya tu śayānasya nideśe caiva tiṣṭhataḥ |197|
nīcaṃ śayyāsanaṃ cāsya nityaṃ syād gurusannidhau |
guros tu cakṣurviṣaye na yatheṣṭāsano bhavet |198|
nodāhared asya nāma parokṣam api kevalam |
na caivāsyānukurvīta gatibhāṣitaceṣṭitam |199|
guror yatra parivādo nindā vāpi pravartate |
karṇau tatra pidhātavyau gantavyaṃ vā tato 'nyataḥ |200|
parīvādāt kharo bhavati śvā vai bhavati nindakaḥ |
paribhoktā kṛmir bhavati kīṭo bhavati matsarī |201|
dūrastho nārcayed enaṃ na kruddho nāntike striyāḥ |
yānāsanasthaś caivainam avaruhyābhivādayet |202|
prativāte 'nuvāte ca nāsīta guruṇā saha |
asaṃśrave caiva guror na kiṃ cid api kīrtayet |203|
go'śvauṣṭrayānaprāsādaprastareṣu kaṭeṣu ca |
āsīta guruṇā sārdhaṃ śilāphalakanauṣu ca |204|
guror gurau sannihite guruvad vṛttim ācaret |
na cānisṛṣṭo guruṇā svān gurūn abhivādayet |205|
vidyāguruṣv evam eva nityā vṛttiḥ svayoniṣu |
pratiṣedhatsu cādharmādd hitaṃ copadiśatsv api |206|
śreyaḥsu guruvad vṛttiṃ nityam eva samācaret |
guruputreṣu cāryeṣu guroś caiva svabandhuṣu |207|
bālaḥ samānajanmā vā śiṣyo vā yajñakarmaṇi |
adhyāpayan gurusuto guruvatmānam arhati |208|
utsādanaṃ ca gātrāṇāṃ snāpanaucchiṣṭabhojane |
na kuryād guruputrasya pādayoś cāvanejanam |209|
guruvat pratipūjyāḥ syuḥ savarṇā guruyoṣitaḥ |
asavarṇās tu sampūjyāḥ pratyutthānābhivādanaiḥ |210|
abhyañjanaṃ snāpanaṃ ca gātrautsādanam eva ca |
gurupatnyā na kāryāṇi keśānāṃ ca prasādhanam |211|
gurupatnī tu yuvatir nābhivādyeha pādayoḥ |
pūrṇaviṃśativarṣeṇa guṇadoṣau vijānatā |212|
svabhāva eṣa nārīṇāṃ narāṇām iha dūṣaṇam |
ato 'rthān na pramādyanti pramadāsu vipaścitaḥ |213|
avidvāṃsam alaṃ loke vidvāṃsam api vā punaḥ |
pramadā hy utpathaṃ netuṃ kāmakrodhavaśānugam |214|
mātrā svasrā duhitrā vā na viviktāsano bhavet |
balavān indriyagrāmo vidvāṃsam api karṣati |215|
kāmaṃ tu gurupatnīnāṃ yuvatīnāṃ yuvā bhuvi |
vidhivad vandanaṃ kuryād asāv aham iti bruvan |216|
viproṣya pādagrahaṇam anvahaṃ cābhivādanam |
gurudāreṣu kurvīta satāṃ dharmam anusmaran |217|
yathā khanan khanitreṇa naro vāry adhigacchati |
tathā gurugatāṃ vidyāṃ śuśrūṣur adhigacchati |218|
muṇḍo vā jaṭilo vā syād atha vā syācchikhājaṭaḥ |
nainaṃ grāme 'bhinimlocet sūryo nābhyudiyāt kva cit |219|
taṃ ced abhyudiyāt sūryaḥ śayānaṃ kāmacārataḥ |
nimloced vāpy avijñānāj japann upavased dinam |220|
sūryeṇa hy abhinirmuktaḥ śayāno 'bhyuditaś ca yaḥ |
prāyaścittam akurvāṇo yuktaḥ syān mahatainasā |221|
ācamya prayato nityam ubhe saṃdhye samāhitaḥ |
śucau deśe japañ japyam upāsīta yathāvidhi |222|
yadi strī yady avarajaḥ śreyaḥ kiṃ cit samācaret |
tat sarvam ācared yukto yatra cāsya ramen manaḥ |223|
dharmārthāv ucyate śreyaḥ kāmārthau dharma eva ca |
artha eveha vā śreyas trivarga iti tu sthitiḥ |224|
ācāryaś ca pitā caiva mātā bhrātā ca pūrvajaḥ |
nārtenāpy avamantavyā brāhmaṇena viśeṣataḥ |225|
ācāryo brahmaṇo mūrtiḥ pitā mūrtiḥ prajāpateḥ |
mātā pṛthivyā mūrtis tu bhrātā svo mūrtir ātmanaḥ |226|
yaṃ mātāpitarau kleśaṃ sahete saṃbhave nṛṇām |
na tasya niṣkṛtiḥ śakyā kartuṃ varṣaśatair api |227|
tayor nityaṃ priyaṃ kuryād ācāryasya ca sarvadā |
teṣv eva triṣu tuṣṭeṣu tapaḥ sarvaṃ samāpyate |228|
teṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ śuśrūṣā paramaṃ tapa ucyate |
na tair anabhyanujñāto dharmam anyaṃ samācaret |229|
ta eva hi trayo lokās ta eva traya āśramāḥ |
ta eva hi trayo vedās ta evoktās trayo 'gnayaḥ |230|
pitā vai gārhapatyo 'gnir mātāgnir dakṣiṇaḥ smṛtaḥ |
gurur āhavanīyas tu sāgnitretā garīyasī |231|
triṣv apramādyann eteṣu trīn lokān vijayed gṛhī |
dīpyamānaḥ svavapuṣā devavad divi modate |232|
imaṃ lokaṃ mātṛbhaktyā pitṛbhaktyā tu madhyamam |
guruśuśrūṣayā tv evaṃ brahmalokaṃ samaśnute |233|
sarve tasyādṛtā dharmā yasyaite traya ādṛtāḥ |
anādṛtās tu yasyaite sarvās tasyāphalāḥ kriyāḥ |234|
yāvat trayas te jīveyus tāvan nānyaṃ samācaret |
teṣv eva nityaṃ śuśrūṣāṃ kuryāt priyahite rataḥ |235|
teṣām anuparodhena pāratryaṃ yad yad ācaret |
tat tan nivedayet tebhyo manovacanakarmabhiḥ |236|
triṣv eteṣv itikṛtyaṃ hi puruṣasya samāpyate |
eṣa dharmaḥ paraḥ sākṣād upadharmo 'nya ucyate |237|


"191. Both when ordered by his teacher, and without a (special) command, (a student) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda), and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher.
192. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense), and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking at the face of his teacher.
193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body well covered, and when he is addressed (with the words), 'Be seated,' he shall sit down, facing his teacher.
194. In the presence of his teacher let him always eat less, wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former), and let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later.
195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher), reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face.
196. Let him do (that), standing up, if (his teacher) is seated, advancing towards him when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs;
197. Going (round) to face (the teacher), if his face is averted, approaching him if he stands at a distance, but bending towards him if he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place.
198. When his teacher is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but within sight of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at ease.
199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher (without adding an honorific title) behind his back even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and deportment.
200. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher, there he must cover his ears or depart thence to another place.
201. By censuring (his teacher), though justly, he will become (in his next birth) an ass, by falsely defaming him, a dog; he who lives on his teacher's substance, will become a worm, and he who is envious (of his merit), a (larger) insect.
202. He must not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof, nor when he (himself) is angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend and afterwards salute his (teacher).
203. Let him not sit with his teacher, to the leeward or to the windward (of him); nor let him say anything which his teacher cannot hear.
204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass or leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.
205. If his teacher's teacher is near, let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher; but let him, unless he has received permission from his teacher, not salute venerable persons of his own (family).
206. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science, towards his relatives (to whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.
207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher's relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.
208. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father's stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of (the science of) sacrifices (or of other Angas), deserves the same honour as the teacher.
209. (A student) must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher's son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.
210. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation.
211. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.
212. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet.
213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.
214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.
215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one's mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.
216. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, 'I, N. N., (worship thee, O lady).'
217. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher's wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.
218. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher.
219. A (student) may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village.
220. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the (next) day, muttering (the Savitri).
221. For he who lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform (that) penance, is tainted by great guilt.
222. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.
223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure.
224. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, (others place it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit alone, and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below); but the (correct) decision is that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three.
225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).
226. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.
227. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.
228. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield).
229. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.
230. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.
231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.
232. He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.
233. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.
234. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.
235. As long as those three live, so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts); let him always serve them, rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them).
236. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.
237. By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other (act) is a subordinate duty."
  Übersetzung: Georg Bühler <1837 - 1896>. -- In: The laws of Manu / transl. with extracts from 7 commentaries by G. Bühler. -- Oxford : Clarendon, 1886. -- CXXXVIII, 620 S. -- (The sacred books of the East ; 25)

2 Von Pāṭaliputra bis zum Himalaja sind es ca. 300 km Luftlinie.

tatra tīvreṇa tapasā
tośitād induśekharāt |
sarvavidyāmukhaṃ tena
prāptaṃ vyākaraṇaṃ navam |22|

22. Dort erfreute er den Monddiademigen1 durch harte Askese. Deshalb erhielt er von diesem eine neue Grammatik, den Zugang zu allen Wissenschaften.


1 Monddiademige = Śiva

tataś cāgatya mām eva
vādāyāhvayate sma saḥ |
pravṛtte cāvayor vāde
prayātāḥ sapta vāsarāḥ |23|

23. Danach kam er zurück und forderte mich zu einem Disput auf. Während wir disputierten, vergingen sieben Tage.

aṣṭame 'hni mayā tasmiñ
jite tatsamantaram |
nabhaḥsthena mahāghoro
huṃkāraḥ śaṃbhunā kṛtaḥ |24|

24. Am achten Tag besiegte ich ihn. Sofort erschien der Glücksbewirker am Himmel und brummte schrecklichst.


1 Glücksbewirker = Śiva

2 brummte: wörtlich: machte Huṃ

tena praṇaṣṭam aindraṃ tad
asmadvyākaraṇaṃ bhuvi |
jitāḥ pāṇininā sarve
mūrkhībhūtā vayaṃ punaḥ |25|

25. Dadurch wurde unsere von Indra stammende Grammatik auf Erden vernichtet. Pāṇini besiegte uns alle und wir wurden wieder zu Trotteln.

atha saṃjātanirvedaḥ
svagṛhasthitaye dhanam |
haste hiraṇyaguptasya
vidhāya vaṇijo nijam |26|

26. Angeekelt vertraute1 ich mein Vermögen den Händen des Händlers Hiraṇyagupta an, damit er es in seinem Haus bewahre.


1 zum Recht der Verwahrung (nikṣepa, upaniddhi) siehe z.B. Manu VIII, 179 - 196

kulaje vṛttasaṃpanne dharmajñe satyavādini |
mahāpakṣe dhaniny ārye nikṣepaṃ nikṣiped budhaḥ |179|
yo yathā nikṣiped dhaste yam arthaṃ yasya mānavaḥ |
sa tathaiva grahītavyo yathā dāyas tathā grahaḥ |180|
yo nikṣepaṃ yācyamāno nikṣeptur na prayacchati |
sa yācyaḥ prāḍvivākena tannikṣeptur asaṃnidhau |181|
sākṣyabhāve praṇidhibhir vayorūpasamanvitaiḥ |
apadeśaiś ca saṃnyasya hiraṇyaṃ tasya tattvataḥ |182|
sa yadi pratipadyeta yathānyastaṃ yathākṛtam |
na tatra vidyate kiṃcid yat parair abhiyujyate |183|
teṣāṃ na dadyād yadi tu tad dhiraṇyaṃ yathāvidhi |
ubhau nigṛhya dāpyaḥ syād iti dharmasya dhāraṇā |184|
nikṣepopanidhī nityaṃ na deyau pratyanantare |
naśyato vinipāte tāv anipāte tv anāśinau |185|
svayam eva tu yau dadyān mṛtasya pratyanantare|
na sa rājñābhiyoktavyo na nikṣeptuś ca bandhubhiḥ |186|
acchalenaiva cānvicchet tam arthaṃ prītipūrvakam |
vicārya tasya vā vṛttaṃ sāmnaiva parisādhayet |187|
nikṣepeṣv eṣu sarveṣu vidhiḥ syāt parisādhane |
samudre nāpnuyāt kiṃcid yadi tasmān na saṃharet |188|
caurair hṛtaṃ jalenoḍham agninā dagdham eva vā |
na dadyād yadi tasmāt sa na saṃharati kiṃcana |189|
nikṣepasyāpahartāram anikṣeptāram eva ca |
sarvair upāyair anvicchec chapathaiś caiva vaidikaiḥ |190|
yo nikṣepaṃ nārpayati yaś cānikṣipya yācate |
tāv ubhau cauravac chāsyau dāpyau vā tatsamaṃ damam |191|
nikṣepasyāpahartāraṃ tatsamaṃ dāpayed damam |
tathopanidhihartāram aviśeṣeṇa pārthivaḥ |192|
upadhābhiś ca yaḥ kaścit paradravyaṃ haren naraḥ |
sasahāyaḥ sa hantavyaḥ prakāśaṃ vividhair vadhaiḥ |193|
nikṣepo yaḥ kṛto yena yāvāṃś ca kulasaṃnidhau |
tāvān eva sa vijñeyo vibruvan daṇḍam arhati |194|
mitho dāyaḥ kṛto yena gṛhīto mitha eva vā |
mitha eva pradātavyo yathā dāyas tathā grahaḥ |195|
nikṣiptasya dhanasyaivaṃ prītyā-upanihitasya ca |
rājā vinirṇayaṃ kuryād akṣiṇvan nyāsadhāriṇam |196|
"179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya).
180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery.
181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the depositor's absence.
182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back).
183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others accuse him.
184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law.
185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter's lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not lost.
186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor's relatives.
187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary's) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means.
188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something.
189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).
190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda.
191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed).
192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value).
193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another's property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices.
194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine.
195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re-delivery.
196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary."
  Übersetzung: Georg Bühler <1837 - 1896>. -- In: The laws of Manu / transl. with extracts from 7 commentaries by G. Bühler. -- Oxford : Clarendon, 1886. -- CXXXVIII, 620 S. -- (The sacred books of the East ; 25)

uktvā tac copakośāyai
gatavān asmi śaṃkaram |
tapobhir ārādhayitum
nirāhāro himālayam |27|

27. Ich erzählte davon Upakośā; dann bin ich in den Himalaya gegangen, um fastend durch Askeseübungen den Glücksbewirker1 zu befriedigen.


1 Glücksbewirker = Śiva

Zu: 2. Vers 28 - 86: Die Geschichte von Upakośā und ihren vier Verehrern