Zitierweise / cite as:
Vātsyāyana: Kāmasūtra : Leitfaden der Liebeskunst / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 1. Buch I. -- 1. Kapitel 1. -- Fassung vom 2007-03-21. -- http://www.payer.de/kamasutra/kamas101.htm
Erstmals publiziert: 2007-03-13
Überarbeitungen: 2007-03-21 [Verbesserungen und Ergänzungen]
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltung SS 2007
©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Verfassers
Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.
dharmārthakāmebhyo namaḥ |1|
1. Religiöser Pflichterfüllung (dharma), zweckrationalem Handeln (artha) und Liebeslust (kāma)1 sei Verehrung!
śāstre prakr̥tatvāt |2|
1 dharma, artha, kāma (trivarga) sind die drei Lebensziele des Menschen (puruṣārtha), als viertes - hier nicht genanntes! - kommt bei den indischen Erlösungsreligionen noch mokṣa - Erlösung dazu. Siehe dazu Kāmasūtra I,2.
2. Denn sie sind Gegenstand des Lehrwerkes.
tatsamayāvabodhakebhyaś cācāryebhyaḥ |3|
3. Verehrung aber auch den Lehrern, die die richtige Zeit und die Regeln dafür erkannt und gelehrt haben!tatsaṃbandhāt |4|
4. Wegen ihrer Verbindung damit.
prajāpatir hi prajāḥ sr̥ṣṭvā tāṣāṃ sthitinibandhanaṃ trivargasya sādhanam adhyāyānāṃ śatasahasreṇāgre provāca |5|
5. Als nämlich Prajāpati1 die Geschöpfe geschaffen hatte, hat er zu Anbeginn als Band zu ihrem Bestand die Lehre, die zur Vollkommenheit in dieser Dreiheit führt, in 100.000 Lehreinheiten2 verkündet.
tasyaikadeśikaṃ manuḥ svāyaṃbhuvo dharmādhikārikaṃ pr̥thak cakāra |6|
"PRAJĀ-PATI. 'Lord of creatures,' a progenitor, creator.
In the Veda the term in applied to Indra, Savitṛ, Soma, Hiraṇya-garbha, and other deities.
In Manu the term is applied to Brahmā as the active creator and supporter of the universe; so Brahmā is the Prajā-pati.
It is also given to Manu Svāyambhuva himself, as the son of Brahmā and as the secondary creator of the ten Ṛṣis, or "mind-born sons" of Brahmā, from whom mankind has descended. It is to these ten sages, as fathers of the human race, that the name Prajā-pati most commonly is given. They are
- Pracetas or Dakṣa,
- Bhṛgu, and
According to some authorities the Prajapatis are only seven in number, being identical with the seven great Ṛṣis. The number and names of the Prajā-patis vary in different authorities: the Mahābhārata makes twenty-one. "
[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]
2 ergänze jeweils aus Sūtra 9 adhyāya: Lehreinheit, Kapitel.
6. Daraus hat Manu1, der Sohn des Svayambhū2, den einen Teil, der die religiöse Pflichterfüllung (dharma)3 beinhaltet, abgetrennt.
1 Manu, der Sohn des Svayambhū
"MANU. (From the root man, to think.) 'The man.'
This name belongs to fourteen mythological progenitors of mankind and rulers of the earth, each of whom holds sway for the period called a Manvantara (manu-antara), the age of a Manu, i.e., a period of no less than 4,320,000 years. The first of these Manus was Svāyam-bhuva, who sprang from Svayambhū, the self-existent. The self-existent, as identified with Brahmā the creator, divided himself into two persons, male and female. From this pair was produced the male Virāj, and from him sprang the Manu Svāyambhuva. As the acting creator, this Manu produced the ten Prajāpatis or progenitors of mankind, called also Maharṣis (mahā-ṛṣis). According to another account, this Manu sprang from the incestuous intercourse of Brahmā with his daughter and wife, Śatarūpā. Brahmā created himself Manu, "born of and identical with his original self, and the female portion of himself he constituted Śatarūpā," whom Manu took to wife. The law-book commonly known as Manu is ascribed to this Manu, and so also is a Sūtra work on ritual bearing the same name. The Manu of the present age is the seventh, named Vaivasvata, 'sun-born,' who was the son of Vivasvat, the sun, and he is a Kṣatriya by race. He is also called Satya-vrata. There are various legends about his having been saved from a great flood by Viṣṇu or Brahmā. The names of the fourteen Manus -
- Vaivasvata or Satyavrata,
- Sāvarṇa or Rudrasāvarṇa,
The sons of Manu Vaivasvata were -
- Nabhaga or Nṛga,
- Nābhāganediṣṭa or Nābhānediṣṭa,
- Karūṣa, and
But there is some variety in the names.
With the seventh Manu, Vaivasvata, is connected the very curious and interesting legend of the deluge. The first account of this is found in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, of which the following is a summary: -- One morning, in the water which was brought to Manu for washing his hands, he caught a fish which spoke, and said, "Take care of me and I will preserve thee." Manu asked, "From what will you preserve me?" The fish answered, "A flood will carry away all living beings; I will save thee from that." The fish desired Manu to keep him alive in an earthen vessel, to remove him to a dyke as he grew larger, and eventually to the ocean, "so that he might be beyond the risk of destruction." The fish grew rapidly, and again addressed Manu, saying, "After so many years the deluge will take place; then construct a ship and pay me homage, and when the waters rise, go into the ship and I will rescue thee." Manu did as he was desired, he built the ship, conveyed the fish to the ocean, and did him homage. The flood rose, and Manu fastened the cable of the ship to the fish's horn. Thus he passed over the northern mountain (the Himālaya, as the commentator explains). The fish then desired Manu to fasten the ship to a tree, and to go down with the subsiding waters. He did so, and found that the flood had swept away all living creatures. He alone was left. Desirous of offspring, he offered sacrifices and engaged in devotion. A woman was produced, who came to Manu and declared herself his daughter. "With her he lived, worshipping and toiling in arduous religious rites, desirous of offspring. With her he begat the offspring which is the offspring of Manu."
The story, as told in the Mahābhārata, represents Manu as engaged in devotion by the side of a river, and the fish craving his protection from the bigger fish. Manu placed the fish in a glass vase, but it grew larger and larger till the ocean alone could contain it. Then it warned Manu of the coming flood, and directed him to build a ship and to embark with the seven Ṛṣis. He did so, and fastened his ship to the horn of the fish.
In the Rāmāyaṇa mention is made of a female Manu, and it appears that the word is sometimes used for "the wife of Manu.""
[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]
2 Svayambhū: svayam bhavatīti svayambhūḥ: der aus sich selbst Existierende = Brahmā
Abb.: Brahmā, Halebidu (ಹಳೆಬೀಡು), Karnataka (ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ)
"BRAHMĀ (masculine). The first member of the Hindu triad; the supreme spirit manifested as the active creator of the universe. He sprang from the mundane egg deposited by the supreme first cause, and is the Prajāpati, or lord and father of all creatures, and in the first place of the Ṛṣis or Prajāpatis.
When Brahmā has created the world it remains unaltered for one of his days, a period of 2,160,000,000 years. The world and all that is therein is then consumed by fire, but the sages, gods, and elements survive. When he awakes he again restores creation, and this process is repeated until his existence of a hundred years is brought to a close, a period which it requires fifteen figures to express. When this period is ended he himself expires, and he and all the gods and sages, and the whole universe are resolved into their constituent elements. His name is invoked in religious services, but Puṣkara (hodie Pokhar), near Ājmīr, is the only place where he receives worship, though Professor Williams states that he has heard of homage being paid to him at Īdar.
Brahmā is said to be of a red colour. He has four heads; originally he had five, but one was burnt off by the fire of Śiva's central eye because he had spoken disrespectfully. Hence he is called Caturānana or Caturmukha, `four-faced,' and Aṣṭakarṇa, `eight-eared.' He has four arms; and in his hands he holds his sceptre, or a spoon, or a string of beads, or his bow Parivīta, or a water-jug, and the Veda. His consort is Sarasvatī, goddess of learning, also called Brāhmī. His vehicle is a swan or goose, from which he is called Haṃsavāhana. His residence is called Brahmavṛṇdā.
The name Brahmā is not found in the Vedas and Brāhmaṇas, in which the active creator is known as Hiraṇyagarbha, Prajāpati, etc.; but there is a curious passage in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa which says: "He (Brahma, neuter) created the gods. Having created the gods, he placed them in these worlds: in this world Agni, Vāyu in the atmosphere, and Sūrya in the sky."
Two points connected with Brahmā are remarkable. As the father of men he performs the work of procreation by incestuous intercourse with his own daughter, variously named Vāc or Sarasvatī (speech), Sandhyā (twilight), Śatarūpā (the hundred-formed), etc. Secondly, that his powers as creator have been arrogated to the other gods Viṣṇu and Śiva, while Brahmā has been thrown into the shade. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa it is said that Prajāpati was in the form of a buck and his daughter was Rohit, a deer. According to the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa and Manu, the supreme soul, the self-existent lord, created the waters and deposited in them a seed, which seed became a golden egg, in which he himself was born as Brahmā, the progenitor of all the worlds. As the waters (nara) were "the place of his movement, he (Brahmā) was called Nārāyaṇa." Here the name Nārāyaṇa is referred distinctly to Brahmā, but it afterwards became the name of Viṣṇu.
The account of the Rāmayaṇa is that "all was water only, in which the earth was formed. Thence arose Brahmā, the self-existent, with the deities. He then, becoming a boar, raised up the earth and created the whole world with the saints, his sons. Brahmā, eternal and perpetually undecaying, sprang from the ether; from him was descended Marīci; the son of Marīci was Kaśyapa. From Kaśyapa sprang Vivasvat, and Manu is declared to have been Vivasvat's son." A later recension of this poem alters this passage so as to make Brahmā a mere manifestation of Viṣṇu. Instead of "Brahmā, the self-existent, with the deities," it substitutes for the last three words, "the imperishable Viṣṇu."
The Viṣṇu Purāṇa says that the "divine Brahmā called Nārāyaṇa created all beings," that Prajāpati "had formerly, at the commencement of the (previous) kalpas, taken the shape of a fish, a tortoise, etc., (so now), entering the body of a boar, the lord of creatures entered the water." But this "lord of creatures" is clearly shown to be Viṣṇu, and these three forms, the fish, the tortoise, and the boar, are now counted among the Avatāras of Viṣṇu.
This attribution of the form of a boar to Brahmā (Prajāpati) had been before made by the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which also says, "Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajāpati created offspring." The Liṅga Purāṇa is quite exceptional among the later works in ascribing the boar form to Brahmā.
The Mahābhārata represents Brahmā as springing from the navel of Viṣṇu or from a lotus which grew there out; hence he is called Nābhija, `navel-born;' Kañja, `the lotus;' Sarojin, `having a lotus;' Abjaja, Abjayoni, and Kañjaja, `lotus-born.' This is, of course, the view taken by the Vaiṣṇavas. The same statement appears in the Rāmāyaṇa, although this poem gives Brahmā a more prominent place than usual. It represents Brahmā as informing Rāma of his divinity, and of his calling him to heaven in "The glory of Viṣṇu." He bestowed boons on Rāma while that hero was on earth, and he extended his favours also to Rāvaṇa and other Rakṣasas who were descendants of his son Pulastya.
In the Purāṇas also he appears as a patron of the enemies of the gods, and it was by his favour that the Daitya King Bali obtained that almost universal dominion which required the incarnation of Viṣṇu as the dwarf to repress.
He is further represented in the Rāmāyaṇa as the creator of the beautiful Ahalyā, whom he gave as wife to the sage Gautama. Brahmā, being thus inferior to Viṣṇu, is represented as giving homage and praise to Viṣṇu himself and to his form Kṛṣṇa but the Vaiṣṇava authorities make him superior to Rudra, who, they say, sprang from his forehead.
The Śaiva authorities make Mahādeva or Rudra to be the creator of Brahmā, and represent Brahmā as worshipping the Liṅga and as acting as the charioteer of Rudra.
Brahmā was the father of Dakṣa, who is said to have sprung from his thumb, and he was present at the sacrifice of that patriarch, which was rudely disturbed by Rudra. Then he had to humbly submit and appease the offended god.
The four Kumāras, the chief of whom was called Sanatkumāra or by the patronymic Vaidhātra, were later creations or sons of Brahmā.
Brahmā is also called Vidhi, Vedhās, Druhiṇa, and Sraṣṭṛ, `creator;' Dhātṛ and Vidhātṛ, `sustainer;' Pitāmaha, `the great father;' Lokeśa, `lord of the world;' Paremeṣṭa, `supreme in heaven;' Sanat, `the ancient;' ādikavi, `the first poet;' and Drūghaṇa, `the axe or mallet.' "
[Quelle: Dowson, John <1820-1881>: A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature. -- London, Trübner, 1879. -- s.v. ]
3 Zu Dharmaśāstra siehe:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Dharmashāstra : Einführung und Überblick. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/dharmashastra/dharmash00.htm
br̥haspatir arthādhikārikam |7|
7. Bṛhaspati1 hat dasselbe mit dem Teil über das zweckrationale Handeln (artha)2 getan.
mahādevānucaraś ca nandī sahasreṇādhyāyānāṃ pr̥thak kāmasūtraṃ provāca |8|
1 Bṛhaspati: Vgl. Mahābhārata XII,58,1-3:
etat te rājadharmāṇāṃ
navanītaṃ yudhiṣṭhira |
bṛhaspatir hi bhagavān
nānyaṃ dharmaṃ praśaṃsati |1|
viśālākṣaś ca bhagavān
kāvyaś caiva mahātapāḥ |
sahasrākṣo mahendraś ca
tathā prācetaso manuḥ |2|
bharadvājaś ca bhagavāṃs
tathā gauraśirā muniḥ |
brahmaṇyā brahmavādinaḥ |3|
Das, Yudhiṣṭhira, ist deine Frischbutter von Recht und Sitte der Herrscher. Denn der ehrwürdige Bṛhaspati verkündet kein anderes Recht und Sitte, auch nicht der ehrwürdige Viśālakṣa und die askesereichen Weisen Sahasrākṣa, Mahendra, Manu, des Pracetas Sohn, der ehrwürdige Bharadvāja und der Weise Gauraśiras, all die vedakundigen wahrheitsformulierenden Herausgeber von Lehrwerken über den Herrscher Mahābhārata XII,58,1-3
Es wird also wohl der Ṛṣi Bṛhaspati, der Lehrer der Götter als Verfasser des Ur-Arthaśāstra gemeint sein.
"BṚHASPATI. In the Ṛgveda the names Bṛhaspati and Brahmaṇaspati alternate, and are equivalent to each other. They are names "of a deity in whom the action of the worshipper upon the gods is personified. He is the suppliant, the sacrificer, the priest, who intercedes with gods on behalf of men and protects mankind against the wicked. Hence he appears as the prototype of the priests and priestly order; and is also designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine community. He is called in one place `the father of the gods,' and a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. He is also designated as `the shining' and `the gold-coloured,' and as `having the thunder for his voice."
In later times he is a Ṛṣi. He is also regent of the planet Jupiter, and the name is commonly used for the planet itself. In this character his car is called Nītighoṣa and is drawn by eight pale horses. He was son of the Ṛṣi Aṅgiras, and he bears the patronymic Āṅgirasa. As preceptor of the gods he is called Animiṣācārya, Cakṣas, Ijya, and Indrejya. His wife, Tārā, was carried off by Soma, the moon, and this gave rise to a war called the Tārakāmaya. Soma was aided by Uśanas, Rudra, and all the Daityas and Dānavas, while Indra and the gods took the part of Bṛhaspati. "Earth, shaken to her centre," appealed to Brahmā, who interposed and restored Tārā to her husband. She was delivered of a son which Bṛhaspati and Soma both claimed, but Tārā, at the command of Brahmā to tell the truth, declared Soma to be the father, and the child was named Buddha. There is an extraordinary story in the Matsya and Bhāgavata Purāṇas of the Ṛṣis having milked the earth through Bṛhaspati. (See Viṣṇu Purāṇa, i. pp. 188, 190.) Bṛhaspati was father of Bharadvāja by Mamatā, wife of Utathya. An ancient code of law bears the name of Bṛhaspati, and he is also represented as being the Vyāsa of the "fourth, Dvāpara age." There was a Ṛṣi of the name in the second Manvantara, and one who was founder of an heretical sect. Other epithets of Bṛhaspati are Jīva, `the living,' Dīdivis, `the bright,' Dhiṣaṇa, `the intelligent,' and, for his eloquence, Gīṣpati, `lord of speech,'. "
2 Zu Arthaśāstra vgl.
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Kauţilîya-arthaśâstra : eine Einführung. -- 1. Einleitung. -- Fassung vom 2002-11-03. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/kautilya/kautilya01.htm
8. Nandin1 aus dem Gefolge des großen Gottes2 verkündete in 1000 Kapiteln gesondert das Lehrwerk der Liebeslust3 (kāmasūtra).
Abb.: Nandin, Gongakondaicholapuram Tempel, Tamil Nadu
"NANDĪ. The bull of Śiva. The Vāyu Purāṇa makes him the son of Kaśyapa and Surabhi. His image, of a milky white colour, is always conspicuous before the temples of Śiva. He is the chamberlain of Śiva, chief of his person attendants (gaṇas), and carries a staff of office. He is guardian of all quadrupeds. He is also called Śālaṅkāyana, and he had the appellations of Nādideha and Tāṇḍavatālika, because he accompanies with music the tandava dance of his master." nānyo 'yaṃ nandināmā kaścit | tathā hi śruyate — divyaṃ varṣasahasram umayā saha suratasukham anubhavati mahādeve vāsagṛhadvāragato nandī kāmasūtraṃ provāceti | Kein anderer (als der aus dem Gefolge Śivas) ist dieser Nandin. Man hört nämlich Folgendes: "Als der große Gott gemeinsam mit Umā (Pārvatī) 1000 Götterjahre lang das Glück des Sex genoss, hat Nandin, der an der Tür des Schlafzimmers Wache stand den Leitfaden der Liebeskunst (kāmasūtra) verkündet." Yaśodhara: Jayamaṅgalāṭīkā z. St.
2 großen Gottes (Mahādeva) = Śiva
Abb.: Śiva und Pārvatī
3 kāmasūtra: Stichworte (sūtra) zur Triebbefriedigung; Mylius folgend hier sehr frei als: "Leitfaden der Liebeskunst" wiedergegeben.
tad eva tu pañcabhir adhyāyaśatair auddālakiḥ śvetaketuḥ saṃcikṣepa |9|
9. Dieses aber fasste Śvetaketu1, der Sohn Uddālakas2, in fünfhundert Kapiteln zusammen.
"ŚVETA-KETU. A sage who, according to the Mahābhārata [I,113,9ff.], put a stop to the practice of married women consorting with other men, especially with Brāhmans. His indignation was aroused at seeing a Brāhman take his mother by the hand and invite her to go away with him. The husband saw this, and told his son that there was no ground of offence, for the practice had prevailed from time immemorial. Śveta-ketu would not tolerate it, and introduced the rule by which a wife is forbidden to have intercourse with another man unless specially appointed by her husband to raise up seed to him." tathā hi paradārābhigamanaṃ loke prāg āsīt, yathocyate —
pakvānnam iva rājendra
sarvasādhāranāḥ striyaḥ |
tasmāt tāsu na kupyeta
na rajyeta rameta ca ||
iti | iyam auddālakena vyavasthā nirvartitā, tathā coktam —
madyapānān nivṛttiś ca
brāhmaṇānāṃ guroḥ sutāt |
prastrībhyaś ca lokānāṃ
ṛṣer auddālakād api ||
tataḥ pitur anujñānād
sukhaṃ śāstraṃ nibaddhavān ||
Auf der Erde war früher der Geschlechtsverkehr mit fremden Ehefrauen so, wie es heißt:
Wie gekochte Speise, Fürst der Könige, sind die Frauen allen gemeinsam. Darum soll man ihretwegen nicht in Zorn geraten, sich in sie nicht verlieben, sondern sich mit ihnen vergnügen.
Der Sohn Uddālakas hat diesen Zustand beseitigt. Es heißt:
Der Sohn des Meisters verbot Brahmanen berauschende Getränke, der Ṛṣi Sohn des Uddālaka verbot den Leuten auch fremde Ehefrauen. Mit seines Vaters Erlaubnis verfasste dann der durch Askese gefestigte Śvetaketu glücklicherweise das einfache Lehrwerk als Regel darüber, mit wem man Sex haben darf und mit wem nicht.
Yaśodhara: Jayamaṅgalāṭīkā z. St.
2 Uddālaka Āruṇi: upaniṣadischer Weiser, der z.B. in Chandogya-upaniṣad 6 seinen Sohn Śvetaketu über über die Entstehung des Menschen und der Elemente sowie über Schlaf, Hunger und Durst und über "Tat tvam asi" unterrichtet
tad eva punar adhyardhenādhyāyaśatena sādhāraṇasāṃprayogikakanyāsaṃprayuktakabhāryādhikārikapāradārikavaiśikaupaniṣadikaiḥ saptabhir adhikaraṇair bābhravyaḥ pāñcālaḥ saṃcikṣepa |10|
10. Dieses aber wieder fasste Babhru's Sohn1, der Pañcala2, in 150 Kapitel mit folgenden sieben Gegenständen zusammen:
1 Bābhravya = Nachkomme des Babhru
bābhravyo babhror apatyaṃ yaḥ pāñcālāḥ, "madhubabhrvoḥ —" iti yañ || bābhravya = Nachkomme des Babhru, der ein Pañcāla ist. Bābhravya ist gebildet gemäß Pāṇini 4,1,106: "Mit dem Suffix yañ (+' _ ya) wird der Geschlechtsname gebildet von madhu, wenn es ein Brahmane ist, und von babhru, wenn ein Kauṣika gemeint ist." Yaśodhara: Jayamaṅgalāṭīkā z. St.
"Panchala corresponds to the geographical area between the Ganges (गंगा) River and Yamuna (यमुना) River around the cities of Kanpur (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کانپُر) and Varanasi (Hindī: वाराणसी).
The position of the Panchala kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India.
Anciently, it was home to an Indian kingdom, the Panchalas, one of the Mahajanapadas.
The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the mountains and river Ganga. It roughly corresponded to modern Budaun, Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش). The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Adhichhatra or Chhatravati (modern Ramnagar in the Bareilly (Hindi: बरेली, Urdu: باریلی) District), while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad District. The famous city of Kanyakubja or Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज) was situated in the kingdom of Panchala.
Panchala was the second "urban" center of Vedic civilization, as its focus moved east from the Punjab (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬ in Gurmukhi, پنجاب in Shahmukhi, Hindi: पंजाब, Urdu: پنجاب), after the focus of power had been with the Kurus in the early Iron Age. This period is associated with the Painted Grey Ware culture, arising beginning around 1100 BC, and declining from 600 BC, with the end of the Vedic period. The Śaunaka and Taittirīya Vedic schools were located in the area of Panchala.
Originally a monarchical clan, the Panchals appear to have switched to republican corporation around 500 BC. The 4th century BC Arthashastra also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution.In the great Indian Hindu epic Mahābhārata, Draupadī (wife of the five Pāṇḍava brothers) was the princess of Panchala; Pāñcālī was her other name."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancala. -- Zugriff am 2007-03-13]
tasya ṣaṣṭhaṃ vaiśikam adhikaraṇaṃ pāṭaliputrikāṇāṃ gaṇikānāṃ niyogād dattakaḥ pr̥thak cakāra |11|
11. Im Auftrag der Huren Pāṭaliputras1 hat Dattaka den sechsten Gegenstand über die Huren gesondert bearbeitet.
tatprasaṅgāc cārāyaṇaḥ sādhāraṇam adhikaraṇaṃ pr̥thak provāca | suvarṇanābhaḥ sāṃprayogikam | ghoṭakamukhaḥ kanyāsaṃprayuktakam | gonardīyo bhāryādhikārikam | goṇikāputraḥ pāradārikam | kucumāra aupaniṣadikam iti |12|
1 Pāṭaliputra = heutiges Patna
Somadeva <11. Jhdt. n. Chr.>: Kathāsaritsāgara : der Ozean der Erzählungsströme : ausgewählte Erzählungen / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 4. Buch I, Welle 3. -- 1. Vers 1 - 26: Die Geschichte von der Gründung der Stadt Pāṭaliputra (I). -- http://www.payer.de/somadeva/soma041.htm
"Paṭnā (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار), and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. Megasthenes (Μεγασθενής) (350 BCE-290 BCE), in his book Indica has mentioned that the city of Palibothra (Pataliputra, modern day Patna) was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra - Hiranyawah) and was 9 miles long and 1.75 miles wide.
The modern city of Patna lies on the southern bank of the Ganges (गंगा), as it flows past with the combined waters of the rivers Ghagra, Son and Gandak. At the point where the city is located, the sacred Ganges looks more sea than river: mighty, wide and never-ending.
A bustling city of 1,200,000 people, the city is approximately 15 km long and 5 km to 7 km wide.
The Buddhist and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir or Rajgriha, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, and Pawapuri are all nearby. Patna is a sacred city for Sikhs also. Their tenth and last "human" guru, Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ), was born here. It is the ideal gateway for all the places on this circuit. The monuments in and around the city take one down the history to its glorious past.
Apart from being the administrative centre of the state and its historic importance, the city is also a major educational centre and medical centre. Its the epicentre for all the students from Bihar preparing for various competitive examinations. Various educational institutions are coming up here.
The walled old area, called Patna City by the locals, is also a major trading centre.Origin of name
The appellation Patna is etymologically derived from Patan, the name of the Hindu goddess Patan devi. Another theory says the name comes from Pattan, or a port in Sanskrit since the city, located near the confluence of four rivers, has been a thriving river port.
The city has been known by various names during its more than two millennia long existence—Pataligram, Pataliputra, Kusumpur, Pushpapura, Azimabad, and the present day Patna. It got its name of Patna during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, a Bihari ruler who has the distinction of making the only interruption to the long rule of Mughals. His tomb is at Sasaram, a place near to Patna.History of Patna
Legend ascribes the origin of Patna to a mythological king Putraka who created Patna by magic for his queen Patali, literally Trumpet flower, which gives it its ancient name Pataligram. It is said that in honour of the first born to the queen, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is the Sanskrit for village and Putra means son.
From a scientific history perspective, it would be appropriate to surmise that the history of Patna started around the year 490 BC when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadh, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajgriha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. He chose the site on the bank of Ganges and fortified the area. From that time, the city has had a continuous history, a record claimed by few cities in the world. Gautam Buddha passed through this place in the last year of his life, and he had prophesized a great future for this place, but at the same time, he predicted its ruin from flood, fire, and feud.
With the rise of the Mauryan empire, the place became the seat of power and nerve centre of the sub-continent. From Pataliputra, the famed emperor Chandragupta Maurya (a contemporary of Alexander) ruled a vast empire, stretching from the Bay of Bengal to Afghanistan.
Early Mauryan Pataliputra was mostly built with wooden structures. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, transformed the wooden capital into a stone construction around 273 BC. Chinese scholar Fa Hein (法顯), who visited India sometime around A.D. 399-414, has given a vivid description of the stone structures in his travelogue.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθενής) , Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta gives the first written account of Patliputra. Much later, a number of Chinese travellers came to India in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observation about Pataliputra in their travelogues.
In the years that followed, the city saw many dynasties ruling the Indian subcontinent from here. It saw the rules of the Gupta empire and the Pala kings. However, it never reached the glory that it had under the Mauryas.With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji (Persian اختيار الدين محمد بن بختيار الخلجي, Bengali ইখতিয়ার উদ্দিন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী), captured Bihar in the 12th century AD and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, Patna lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India.
The Mughal (Persian: سلطنت مغولی هند , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت) period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during these times was under Sher Shah Suri (Pashto/Persian: شیر شاه سورى ) who revived Patna in the middle of the 16th century. He visualised a fort and a town on the banks of Ganga. Sher Shah's fort in Patna does not survive, but the mosque built in Afghan architectural style survives.
Mughal emperor Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر ) came to Patna in 1574 to crush the Afghan Chief Daud Khan. Akbar's Secretary of State and author of Ain-i-Akbari refers to Patna as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna famous as Patna rice in Europe.
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (Persian: اورنگزیب, ) acceded to the request of his favourite grandson Prince Muhammad Azim to rename Patna as Azimabad, in 1704 while Azim was in Patna as the subedar. However, very little changed during this period other than the name.With the decline of Mughal empire, Patna moved into the hands of the Nawabs (Urdu: نواب, Hindi: नवाब) of Bengal, who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre.
During 17th century, Patna became a centre of international trade. The British started with a factory in Patna in 1620 for trading in calico and silk. Soon it became a trading centre for saltpetre, urging other Europeans—French, Danes, Dutch and Portuguese—to compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy, writing in 1632, calls this place, "the greatest mart of the eastern region".
After the decisive Battle of Buxar (बक्सर) (1765), Patna fell in the hands of the East India Company and continued as a trading centre.
In 1912, Patna became of the capital of Orissa Province and Bihâr when Bengal Presidency was partitioned. It soon emerged as an important and strategic centre. A number of imposing structures were constructed by the British. Credit for designing the massive and majestic buildings of colonial Patna goes to the architect, I. F. Munnings. Most of these buildings reflect either Indo-Saracenic influence (like Patna Museum and the state Assembly), or overt Renaissance influence like the Raj Bhawan and the High Court. Some buildings, like the General Post Office (GPO) and the Old Secretariat bear pseudo-Renaissance influence. Some say, the experience gained in building the new capital area of Patna proved very useful in building the imperial capital of New Delhi.
Patna is important seat of business in eastern part of India, major trading centre of cotton, tusser, readymade garments, now it emerging as a big centre of higher education as got. has started Chankya Law University, BIT Mesra Extension Centre etc. There are several prestigious educational institutions in Patna like Patna College, Patna Women's College, Patna Science College, Bihar National College, Bihar College of Engineering, now National Institute of Technology, Patna, Patna Medical College (formerly, Prince of Wales Medical College), Nalanda Medical College, Patna Dental College and the Bihar Veterinary College. A new IIT is coming up near Patna. Also the prestigious IGIMS is starting medical education in the near future. A few private medical & engineering colleges are also coming up in the near future.
Orissa was created as a separate province in 1935. Patna continued as the capital of Bihar province under the British Raj.
Patna played a major role in the Indian independence struggle. Most notable are the Champaran movement against the Indigo plantation and the 1942 Quit India Movement.
Patna continued to be the capital of the state of Bihar after independence in 1947, though Bihar itself was partitioned again in 2000 when Jharkhand (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড) was carved out as a separate state of the Indian union.Geography
Patna is located on the south bank of the Ganges River, called Ganga locally. Patna has a very long riverline, and it is surrounded on three sides by rivers—the Ganga, Sone, and Poonpun (also spelt Punpun). Just to the north of Patna across the river Ganga flows the river Gandak making it a unique place having four largish rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world.
The bridge over the river Ganga, named after Mohandas Gandhi, is 5850m long is said to be the longest single river bridge in the world.
- Altitude: 53 meters
- Temperature: Summer 43 °C to 21 °C, Winter 20 °C to 5 °C
- Rainfall (average): 1,200 mm
In Patna, as in most of Bihar, the summer temperatures rise very high as the hot tropical sun beats down with all its intensity coupled with a heat wave which though is not as severe as say in Delhi (Hindi: दिल्ली, Urdu: دہلی or دلّی, Punjabi: ਦਿੱਲੀ). The city, being near four large rivers, experiences a rather high humidity throughout the year.
The summer begins in April and peaks in June/July with the temperature soaring up to 46° C till the moisture laden monsoon wind bring some much-needed relief to the parched fields. The rains last through August & September and continue into early October. The northern Indian winters bring bitter cold nights and sunny days to Patna from November to February till the arrival of the spring that brings the weather to a full cycle.
The local almanac divides the year into six seasons of roughly two months each. Apart from the usual four seasons: Summer, Monsoon, Winter and Spring, you may add mild winter between Monsoon and Winter and Mild summer just before the onslaught of the severe north Indian summer.Demographics
The population of Patna is over 1,285,470 (2001 census), which has grown from 917,243 in the 1991 census. The population density is 1132 persons per square kilometre. There are 839 females to every 1,000 males. Overall Literacy rate is 62.9%, and female Literacy rate is 50.8%. Source – District Elementary Education Report Card 2004 of National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi (www.eduinfoindia.net)
Patna has a moderate crime rate. The main jail is Beur Jail.
Many languages are spoken in Patna. Hindi is the official language of the state of Bihar. Thanks to the British influence since early days, English is also spoken extensively.
The native dialect is Magahi (मगही). Other dialects from other regions of Bihar spoken widely in Patna are Angika (अङ्गिका or अंगिका), Bhojpuri (भोजपुरी), and Maithili (मैथिली). Other languages spoken in Patna include Urdu (اردو), Bengali (বাংলা), and Oriya (ଓଡ଼ିଆ)."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patna. -- Zugriff am 2007-03-13]
12. Bei dieser Gelegenheit hat
1 Cārāyaṇa und die anderen hier genannten Autoren kann ich nicht näher identifzieren.
evaṃ bahubhir ācāryais tacchāstraṃ khaṇḍaśaḥ praṇītam utsannakalpam abhūt |13|
13. So wurde dieses Lehrwerk von vielen Lehrern in Einzelteilen herausgegeben, wobei die Gesamtkomposition und Zusammenhang verloren gingen.tatra dattakādibhiḥ praṇītānāṃ śāstrāvayavānām ekadeśatvāt, mahad iti ca bābhravīyasya duradhyeyatvāt, saṃkṣipya sarvam artham alpena granthena kāmasūtram idaṃ praṇītam |14|
14. Angesichts dieses Sachverhalts wurde der ganze Inhalt in einem knappen Buch zusammengefasst und dieser Leitfaden der Liebeskunst (kāmasūtra) verfasst. Denn die von Dattaka und den anderen verfassten Teile des Lehrwerkes waren einseitig; und das Werk Bābhravas war, weil es zu umfangreich war, kaum zu lernen.
tasyāyaṃ prakaraṇādhikaraṇasamuddeśaḥ --- |15|
15. Dies ist das Verzeichnis seiner Teile und Kapitel:1
śāstrasaṃgrahaḥ | trivargapratipattiḥ | vidyāsamuddeśaḥ | nāgarikavr̥ttam | nāyakasahāyadūtīkarmavimarśaḥ | iti sādhāraṇaṃ prathamam adhikaraṇam | adhyāyāḥ pañca | prakaraṇāni pañca |16|
1 Die Übersetzung der Überschriften erfolgt erst nach Übersetzung der jeweiligen Kapitel.
16. Der erste Teil: über Allgemeines. Fünf Lehrabschnitte, fünf Kapitel:
pramāṇakālabhāvebhyo ratāvasthāpanam | prītiviśeṣāḥ | āliṅganavicārāḥ | cumbanavikalpāḥ | nakharadanajātayaḥ | daśanacchedyavidhayaḥ | deśyā upacārāḥ | saṃveśanaprakārāḥ | citraratāni | prahaṇanayogāḥ | tadyuktāś ca sītkr̥topakramāḥ | puruṣāyitam | puruṣopasṛptāni | aupariṣṭakam | ratārambhāvasānikam | rataviśeṣāḥ | praṇayakalahaḥ | iti sāṃprayogikaṃ dvitīyam adhikaraṇam | adhyāyā daśa | prakaraṇāni saptadaśa |17|
17. Der zweite Teil: über Geschlechtsverkehr: Zehn Lehrabschnitte, 17 Kapitel:
ekacāriṇīvr̥ttam | pravāsacaryā | sapatnīṣu jyeṣṭhāvr̥ttam | kaniṣṭhāvr̥ttam | punarbhūvr̥ttam | durbhagāvr̥ttam | āntaḥpurikam | puruṣasya bahvīṣu pratipattiḥ | iti bhāryādhikārikaṃ caturtham adhikaraṇam | adhyāyau dvau | prakaraṇāny aṣṭau |19|strīpuruṣaśīlāvasthāpanam | vyāvartanakāraṇāni | strīṣu siddhāḥ puruṣāḥ | ayatnasādhyā yoṣitaḥ | paricayakāraṇāni | abhiyogāḥ | bhāvaparīkṣā | dūtīkarmāṇi | īśvarakāmitam | āntaḥpurikaṃ dārarakṣitakam | iti pāradārikaṃ pañcamam adhikaraṇam | adhyāyāḥ ṣaṭ | prakaraṇāni daśa |20|
gamyacintā | gamanakāraṇāni | upāvartanavidhiḥ | kāntānuvartanam | arthāgamopāyāḥ | viraktaliṅgāni | viraktapratipattiḥ | niṣkāsanaprakārāḥ | viśīrṇapratisaṃdhānam | lābhaviśeṣaḥ | arthānarthānubandhasaṃśayavicāraḥ | veśyāviśeṣāś ca | iti vaiśikaṃ ṣaṣṭham adhikaraṇam | adhyāyāḥ ṣaṭ | prakaraṇāni dvādaśa |21|subhagaṃkaraṇam | vaśīkaraṇam | vr̥ṣyāś ca yogāḥ | naṣṭarāgapratyānayanam | vr̥ddhividhayaḥ | citrāś ca yogāḥ | ity aupaniṣadikaṃ saptamam adhikaraṇam | adhyāyau dvau | prakaraṇāni ṣaṭ |22|
evaṃ ṣaṭtriṃśad adhyāyāḥ | catuḥṣaṣṭiḥ prakaraṇāni | adhikaraṇāni sapta | sapādaṃ ślokasahasram | iti śāstrasya saṃgrahaḥ |23|
23. So sind es 36 Lehrabschnitte, 64 Kapitel, sieben Teile, 1250 Ślokas.
Dies ist die Übersicht über das Lehrwerk.saṃkṣepam imam uktvāsya
24. Nachdem diese Zusammenfassung gegeben wurde, wird davon eine ausführliche Darstellung dargelegt. Denn die Kenner in dieser Welt wünschen eine Aussage in Kürze und Breite.
Definition des Śloka in einem Śloka:
śloke ṣaṣṭhaṃ guru jñeyaṃ
sarvatra laghu pañcamam
saptamaṃ dīrgham anyayoḥ
"Im Śloka ist die sechste Silbe eines Pāda schwer, die fünfte in allen Pādas leicht
Die siebte Silbe ist im zweiten und vierten Pāda kurz, lang in den beiden anderen."
Das metrische Schema ist also:
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
Zur Metrik siehe:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Einführung in die Exegese von Sanskrittexten : Skript. -- Kap. 8: Die eigentliche Exegese, Teil II: Zu einzelnen Fragestellungen synchronen Verstehens. -- Anhang B: Zur Metrik von Sanskrittexten. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/exegese/exeg08b.htm
In unserem Falle:
Zu Kāmasūtra I,2