Zitierweise / cite as:
Mahanama <6. Jhdt n. Chr.>: Mahavamsa : die große Chronik Sri Lankas / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 3. Kapitel 3: Das erste Konzil. -- Fassung vom 2006-06-01. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/mahavamsa/chronik03.htm. -- [Stichwort].
Erstmals publiziert: 2006-03-29
Überarbeitungen: 2006-06-01 [Ergänzungen]; 2006-05-26 [Ergänzungen]; 2006-05-08 [Ergänzungen]; 2006-04-24 [Ergänzungen]; 2006-04-21 [Umstellung auf Unicode!]; 2006-04-09 [Ergänzungen]
Anlass: Lehrveranstaltungen, Sommersemester 2001, 2006
©opyright: Dieser Text steht der Allgemeinheit zur Verfügung. Eine Verwertung in Publikationen, die über übliche Zitate hinausgeht, bedarf der ausdrücklichen Genehmigung des Übersetzers.
Diese Inhalt ist unter einer Creative Commons-Lizenz lizenziert.
Dieser Text ist Teil der Abteilung Buddhismus von Tüpfli's Global Village Library
Pālitext: http://wwwṭipitaka.org/tipitaka/e0703n/e0703n-frm.html.-- Zugriff am 2006-02-28 (Offenkundige Fehler oder Missverständnisse wurden stillschweigend verbessert)
Falls Sie die diakritischen Zeichen nicht dargestellt bekommen, installieren Sie eine Schrift mit Diakritika wie z.B. Tahoma.
Die Zahlreichen Zitate aus Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. sind ein Tribut an dieses großartige Werk. Das Gesamtwerk ist online zugänglich unter: http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html. -- Zugriff am 2006-05-08.
Die erste gemeinsame Rezitation der Buddhalehre (das erste Konzil)
Alle Verse mit Ausnahme des Schlussverses sind im Versmaß vatta = siloka = Śloka abgefasst.
Das metrische Schema ist:
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉˉˉ
̽ ̽ ̽ ̽ ˘ˉ˘ˉ
Ausführlich zu Vatta im Pāli siehe:
Warder, A. K. (Anthony Kennedy) <1924 - >: Pali metre : a contribution to the history of Indian literature. -- London : Luzac, 1967. -- XIII, 252 S. -- S. 172 - 201.
Der Hauptzweck der drei Kapitel zu den ersten drei Konzilen ist, zu zeigen, dass der Theravādabuddhismus Lankās der Bewahrer der reinen Buddhalehre ist.
Zum ersten und zweiten Konzil siehe:
Lamotte, Étienne <1903 - 1983>: Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien des origines á l'ére Śaka. -- Louvain : Publications Universitaires, 1958. -- (Bibliothèque du Musèon ; vol. 43). -- S. 136 - 154.
Lamotte, Étienne <1903 - 1983>: History of Indian Buddhism from the origins to the Śaka era / translated from the French by Sara Webb-Boin. -- Louvain-la-Neuve: Institute Orientaliste, 1988. -- (Publications de l'Institute Orientaliste de Louvain ; 36). -- S. 124 - 140.
1. Pañcanetto jino pañca-
ṭhatvā sabbāni kiccāni,
katvā lokassa sabbathā.
2. Kusinārāyaṃ yamaka-
sālānam antare vare;
dīpo lokassa nibbuto.
Der unvergleichliche fünf-äugige1 Sieger [Buddha Gotama] vollendete in 45 Jahren2 in jeder Hinsicht alle seine Aufgaben gegenüber der Welt. Dann ist er, das Licht der Welt, in Kusinārā3 am Vollmondtag des Monats Vesakhā4 am hervorragenden Platz zwischen den Zwillings-Sāla-Bäume5 erlöscht6.
- maṃsa-cakkhu n. -- Auge aus Fleisch
- dibba-cakkhu n. -- himmlisches Auge: man sieht wie andere Wesen vergehen und wiederentstehen
- paññā-cakkhu n. -- Auge der Einsicht
- Buddha-cakkhu n. -- Buddha-Auge
- samanta-cakkhu n. -- Allüberall-Auge
(Mahāniddesa (Khuddakanikāya) 45; Nal IV/1, 39, 12-15; Th 29, 52)
2 45 Jahre, d.h. nach Theravādachronologie von 589 v. Chr. (Dhammacakkhapavattana) bis 543 v. Chr. (Mahāparinibbāna)
3 Kusinārā, heute Kasia
Abb.: Lage von Kasia = Kusinārā, Rājgīr = RājagahaZu Kusināra siehe:
Mahanama <6. Jhdt n. Chr.>: Mahavamsa : die große Chronik Sri Lankas / übersetzt und erläutert von Alois Payer. -- 2. Kapitel 2: Der Stammbaum Siddhatta's. -- Fassung vom 2006-03-16. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/mahavamsa/chronik02.htm. -- Zu Vers 6
4 Monat Vesakhā
Die Monate nach dem indischen Mondkalender sind:
Monatsname fällt in Monate bzw. 1 Citta Februar/März März/April 2. Vesākha März/April April/Mai 3 Jeṭṭha April/Mai Mai/Juni 4 Āsāḷha Mai/Juni Juni/Juli 5 Sāvana Juni/Juli Juli/August 6. Potthapāda Juli/August August/September 7. Assayuja August/September September/Oktober 8. Kattika September/Oktober Oktober/November 9. Maggasira Oktober/November November/Dezember 10. Phussa November/Dezember Dezember/Januar 11. Māgha Dezember/Januar Januar/Februar 12. Phagguna Januar/Februar Februar/März
Im Monat Vesakha fanden die Geburt, die Erlösende Erkenntnis (Mahābodhi) und das völlige Erlöschen (Mahāparinibbāna) statt. Die Vesākhapūjā wurde von allen Königen Ceylons feierlichst gefeiert. Im Monat Vesākha fanden deshalb auch besonders wichtige Ereignisse in der Geschichte Ceylons statt, wie die Königskrönung von Devānampiyatissa oder die Grundsteinlegung des Mahā Thūpa.
Sāla = Shorea robusta
Abb.: Sal-Baum -- Shorea robusta
[Quelle der Abb.: Dietrich Brandis. -- 1844. -- http://calibanṃpiz-koelnṃpg.de/~stueber/brandis/. -- Zugriff am 2001-06-11]
Ausführlich und fundiert zur Shorea robusta siehe:
The wealth of India : a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. -- Raw materials. -- Vol. IX. -- New Delhi : Council of scientific & industrial research, 1972. -- ISBN 81-85038-20-1. -- S. 313 - 321
"Der Sal (Shorea robusta) gehört zur Familie der Flügelfruchtgewächse (Dipterocarpaceae). Lokale Namen in Indien sind unter anderem: Ral, Salwa, Sakhu, Sakher, Shal, Kandar und Sakwa.
Abb.: Wald mit Sal-Bäumen
[Bildquelle: .tushar. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/pokle/140269055/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-05-27]
Der Salbaum wächst aufrecht und wird bis zu 35 m hoch. Er gilt als langsam bis mittelschnell wachsend (wird etwa 100 Jahre alt) und besitzt ein hartes Holz. Der Stamm erreicht einen Durchmesser von bis zu 2 m. Das frischgeschlagene Kernholz ist hell, dunkelt später jedoch nach. Es ist reich an Harz und langlebig. Das Splintholz ist weißlich und verrottet recht schnell. Die Rinde der jungen Bäume ist bis 2- bis 5 cm dick, weich und mit wenigen tiefen Furchen durchsetzt. Die Rinde älterer Bäume ist rötlich-braun oder grau. Junge Zweige sind behaart.
In feuchten Gebieten ist der Salbaum immergrün, in trockeneren Gebieten verliert er zwischen Februar und April einen Großteil seines Laubs. Im April/Mai kommen dann neue länglich-ovale Blätter, die 5- bis 24 cm breit und 10 bis 40 cm lang werden und 2 bis 2,5 cm lange, behaarte Stiele besitzen. Die zweizeilig angeordneten Blätter sind ledrig und glänzen auf der Oberseite wenn sie älter sind, die Blattunterseite ist hingegen blassgrün. Dort treten die Mittelrippe und je circa 12 Seitennerven hervor. Die Spreitenspitze ist spitz zulaufend, der Spreitengrund ist herzförmig bis abgerundet.
Die Nebenblätter sind länglich und fallen sehr früh ab.
Die Blütezeit ist von Februar bis Mai. Die Blüten stehen in bis zu 25 cm langen racemösen Rispen. Die Kronblätter sind cremefarben bis gelblich und können manchmal einen pinkfarbenen Mittelstreifen besitzen. Sie sind circa 0,5 x 1 bis 1,5cm lang und verdreht (contort). Die Kelchblätter sind jung oval und dicht lederfarben behaart. Bei der Fruchtreife wachsen drei der fünf Kelchblätter zu langen (1,5 x 8 cm) Flügeln aus, die anderen beiden sind kleiner (0,5 x 3 cm). Die Blüte besitzt viele Staubblätter, deren Konnektive kleine Fortsätze ausbilden. Es wird nur ein Griffel ausgebildet.Die Frucht ist eine bis 1,2cm lange Nuss und hat einen 1,2 cm langen Griffelrest an der Spitze. Sie ist umgeben von den fünf Kelchblättern, von denen drei zu Flügeln auswachsen und zur Windausbreitung (Anemochorie) dienen. Ende Mai bis Juli sind die 0,5 bis 1,2 cm großen Früchte reif. Die Samen keimen oftmals schon an der Mutterpflanze (Viviparie) und wachsen auf dem durch den Frühjahrs-Monsun gewässerten Boden sehr schnell an.
Es ist eine bedeutende Baumart im Norden des indischen Subkontinents. Dort ist er waldbildend (Salwald) und somit eine Form der Monsunwälder.Sal wächst südlich vom Himalaya, von Myanmar im Osten über Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bangladesh, Sikkim bis Nepal. In Zentral-Indien findet man man ihn in den nördlichen Bundesstaaten bis in die Shivalik Hills östlich des Flusses Yamuna im Staat Haryana. Die Verbreitung geht nach Süden weiter bis in das östliche Vindhyagebirge, das Satpuragebirge und in die Ostghats.
Ökologie und GefährdungSalbäume wachsen vor allem auf sandigen Lehmböden (50 % Sand, 30 % Silt, 20 % Tonmineral). Er bevorzugt eher trockenere Standorte, längere Überschwemmungen schaden ihm. Dennoch unterscheidet man die feuchten Küsten-Salwäldern von den trockeneren Sal-Binnenwäldern.
Der Sal benötigt viel Licht und verträgt keine Beschattung. Er bildet ein lockeres Kronendach aus, sodass der Unterwuchs gut belichtet wird.
In Salwäldern kommt es (wahrscheinlich durch den Menschen) desöfteren zu Bränden gegen die ausgewachsene Bäume widerstandsfähig sind. Jüngere Bäume können, je nach Brandstärke Schäden davontragen, vor allem durch Wundinfektionen durch Pilze. Insofern ist fraglich, ob Feuer eher nutzt oder schadet, da Feuer in anderen Ökosystemen, wie den südafrikanischen Fynbos, bedeutend für die Nährstofffreisetzung ist. Das verstärkte Wachstum der Krautschicht nach Bränden scheint indes den Verbiss an Jungpflanzen durch höhere Pflanzenfresserdichten zu fördern.
Neben Bränden ist ein Käfer, der Sal-Kernholzbohrer Hoplocerambyx spinicornis eine bedeutende Gefährdung des Salbaums. Da die Art vegetationsbestimmend ist (allerdings nicht als Monokultur), ist das Gefährdungspotential durch Schädlinge sehr groß.
Da der Sal auch viele Anwendungsmöglichkeiten für den Menschen hat (siehe Abschitt unten), besteht auch die Gefahr der Übernutzung, sodass ein Waldmanagement von Nöten ist.Nutzung
Das Holz des Salbaumes ist durch das Harz und die faserige Struktur schwierig zu bearbeiten und wird vor allem für den Hausbau, für Brücken, Paletten, Waggons, Telefon- und Strommasten und als Gleisunterlage verwendet. Von daher besitzt es einen bedeutenden wirtschaftlichen Wert. Das weißliche opalisierende Harz wird zum Abdichten von Planken benutzt, aber auch von Hindus bei religiösen Zeremonien verbrannt.
Die Blätter dienen als Teller oder Körbe für Speisen. Die gefalteten Blätter mit etwas Kurkuma oder einigen Reiskörnern gelten mancherorts auch als Einladung zu einer Hochzeit. Das aus der Destillation gewonnene Öl der Blätter wird für die Parfümherstellung benutzt oder, um Kau- oder Rauchtabak zu parfümisieren.
Auch die ölreichen Samen werden vielfältig verwertet. Das Öl, oder Sal-Butter, enthält vor allem Stearinsäure und Ölsäure und wird unter anderem für die Seifen- und Kosmetikproduktion verwendet. Es dient als Lampenöl oder zur Produktion geklärter Butter, dem sogenannten Ghee. Es ist auch als Zusatz bei der Schokoladeherstellung erlaubt.
Der Ölkuchen der ausgepressten Samen ist reich an Tanninen (6-8%) und wird Rindern mit bis zu 20 %igem Anteil ins Viehfutter gemischt, bei Schweinen und Geflügel sind 10% Zumischung problemlos möglich.Sal in der Sage
Die weite Verbreitung des Sal und dessen Bedeutung hat sich auch in der Kultur niedergeschlagen. So gebar einer Sage nach die Königin Maya ihren Sohn Siddhartha Gautama, der später mit seiner Erleuchtung zum Buddha wurde, unter einem Salbaum. Eine andere Sage besagt, sie hätte unter einem Salbaum von einem Elefanten mit 6 Stoßzähnen geträumt, der in ihren Körper eindringt. Dieser, Airavat genannte Elefant wird von vielen Hindus als Reinkarnation des Gottes Vishnu angesehen. Auch wird erzählt, Buddha sei unter einem Salbaum gestorben."
[Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salbaum. -- Zugriff am 2006-04-24]
6 erlöscht: Mahāparinibbāna
Abb.: Vesakh-Glückwunschkarte mit Darstellung des Mahāparinibbānas (stehend: Ānanda), Gal Vihāra (bei Polonnaruwa), Sri Lanka, 12. Jhdt n. Chr.
[Bildquelle: http://www.realityofsrilanka.com/wesak.htm. -- Zugriff am 2006-03-21. -- "No Copy Rights Reserved"]
Nach der Theravādachronologie 543 v. Chr.
Zum Mahāparinibbāna siehe:
Abb.: Ernst Waldschmidt, 1936 - 1965 Ordinarius für Indologie in Göttingen, 1938
[Foto: R. N. Sardesai: Picturesque Orientalia. -- Poona, 1938. -- http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/personal/galeria/waldschm.htm. -- Zugriff am 2006-03-21]
Waldschmidt, Ernst <1897 - 1985>: Die Überlieferung vom Lebensende des Buddha : eine vergleichende Analyse des Mahāparinivānasūtra und seiner Textentsprechungen. -- Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1944-1948. -- 2 Teile. -- 367 S. -- (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Phil.-hist. Klasse ; 3. Folge, Nr 29). -- [Ausgezeichnete Einführung in die historische Vorgehensweise bezüglich der buddhistischen Überlieferungen]
3. Saṃkhyāpatham atikkantā,
bhikkhū tattha samāgatā;
khattiyā brāhmaṇā vessā,
suddāa devā tatheva ca.
a Burm.: suddhā
Unzählige Mönche, Adelige (Kṣatria), Geistliche (Brahmanen), Angehörige des Nährstandes (Vaiśya), des Dienststandes (Śūdra)1 und Götter hatten sich dort versammelt.
1 Die Reihenfolge entspricht der Statusordnung im buddhistischen Ständesystem: an oberster Stelle stehen in diesem Weltalter die Adeligen (Kṣatriya), erst an zweiter Stelle folgen die Geistlichen (Brahmanen). Dies widerspricht der Ständeordnung der brahmanischen Literatur, in der die Brahmanen an erster Stelle stehen. Weil die Kṣatriya an oberster Stelle stehen ist der Bodhisatta Siddhattha als Kṣatriya geboren worden, und dort im vornehmsten Geschlecht, dem der Sākya. Dies zeigt deutlich, dass der Buddhismus die indische Ständeordnung als solche und als weltliche Institution nicht in Frage stellte.
4. Satta satasahassāni,
thero Mahākassapo vaa,
saṃghatthero tadā ahu.
a Geiger: ca
Unter ihnen waren 700.000 herausragende Mönche, der Thera1 Mahākassapa2 war damals der Sangha-Thera3.
1 Thera: ein Mönch, der seit seiner Ordination (Upasampadā) mindestens zehn Regenzeiten lang ununterbrochen Mönch war.
"Mahā Kassapa Thera
One of the Buddha's most eminent disciples, chief among those who upheld minute observances of form (dhutavādānam) (A.i.23). He was born in the brahmin village of Mahātittha in Magadha, and was the son of the brahmin Kapila, his mother being Sumanādevī; he himself was called Pippali. At Ap.ii.583, vs. 56; but there his father is called Kosiyagotta.
When he grew up he refused to marry in spite of the wishes of his parents; but in the end, to escape from their importunities, he agreed to marry if a wife could be found resembling a statue, which he had made. Bhaddā Kāpilānī was found at Sāgala to fulfil these conditions, and though the young people wrote to each other suggesting that somebody else should be found as a match for each, their letters were intercepted and they were married. By mutual consent, however, the marriage was not consummated, the two spending the night separated by a chain of flowers. Pippali had immense wealth; he used twelve measures of perfumed powder daily, each measure a Magadhanāli, for his person alone. He had sixty lakes with water works attached, and his workmen occupied fourteen villages, each as large as Anurādhapura.
One day he went to a field, which was being ploughed and saw the birds eating the worms turned up by the plough. On being told that the sin therein was his, he decided to renounce all his possessions.
At the same time, Bhaddā had been watching the crows eating the little insects, which ran about among the seamsum seeds that had been put out to dry, and when her attendant women told her that hers would be the sin for their loss of life, she also determined to renounce the world.
The husband and wife, finding that they were of one accord, took yellow raiments from their wardrobe, cut off each other's hair, took bowls in their hands, and passed out through their weeping servants, to all of whom they granted their freedom, and departed together, Pippali walking in front. But soon they agreed that it was not seemly they should walk thus together, as each must prove a hindrance to the other. And so, at the cross roads, he took the right and she the left and the earth trembled to see such virtue.
The Buddha, sitting in the Gandhakuti in Veluvana, knew what the earthquake signified, and having walked three gāvutas, sat down at the foot of the Bahuputtaka Nigrodha, between Rājagaha and Nālandā, resplendent in all the glory of a Buddha. Pippali saw the Buddha, and recognising him at once as his teacher, prostrated himself before him. The Buddha told him to be seated, and, in three homilies, gave him his ordination.
Together they returned to Rājagaha, Kassapa, who bore on his body seven of the thirty two marks of a Great Being, following the Buddha. On the way, the Buddha desired to sit at the foot of a tree by the roadside, and Kassapa folded for him his outer robe (pilotikasanghāti) as a seat. The Buddha sat on it and, feeling it with his hand, praised its softness. Kassapa asked him to accept it. "And what would you wear?" inquired the Buddha. Kassapa then begged that he might be given the rag robe worn by the Buddha. "It is faded with use," said the Buddha, but Kassapa said he would prize it above the whole world and the robes were exchanged. (The robe which Kassapa exchanged with the Buddha was Punnā's cloak. See Punnā 6).
The earth quaked again in recognition of Kassapa's virtues, for no ordinary being would have been fit to wear the Buddha's cast off robe. Kassapa, conscious of the great honour, took upon himself the thirteen austere vows (dhutagunā) and, after eight days, became an arahant.
In the past Kassapa and Bhaddā had been husband and wife and companions in good works in many births. In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Kassapa was a very rich householder named Vedeha and married to Bhaddā, and very devoted to the Buddha. One day he heard the Buddha's third disciple in rank (Nisabha) being awarded the place of pre eminence among those who observed austere practices, and registered a wish for a similar honour for himself in the future. He learnt from the Buddha of the qualities in which Nisabha excelled the Buddha himself, and determined to obtain them. With this end in view, during birth after birth, he expended all his energies in goods deeds. Ninety one kappas ago; in the time of Vipassī Buddha, he was the brahmin Ekasātaka and Bhaddā was his wife. In the interval between Konāgamana and Kassapa Buddhas he was a setthiputta. He married Bhaddā, but because of an evil deed she had done in the past, she became unattractive to him and he left her, taking her as wife again when she became attractive. Having seen from what had happened to his wife how great was the power of the Buddhas, the setthiputta wrapped Kassapa Buddha's golden cetiya with costly robes and decked it with golden lotuses, each the size of a cartwheel.
In the next birth he was Nanda, king of Benares, and, because he had given robes in past lives, he had thirty two kapparukkhas, which provided him and all the people of his kingdom with garments. At the suggestion of his queen, he made preparations to feed holy men, and five hundred Pacceka Buddhas, sons of Padumā, came to accept his gift. In that life, too, Nanda and his queen renounced the world and became ascetics, and having developed the jhānas, were reborn in the Brahma world.
Kassapa was not present at the death of the Buddha; as he was journeying from Pāvā to Kusināra he met an Ājīvaka carrying in his hand a mandārava flower picked up by him from among those which had rained from heaven in honour of the Buddha, and it was he who told Kassapa the news. It was then the seventh day after the Buddha's death, and the Mallas had been trying in vain to set fire to his pyre. The arahant theras, who were present, declared that it could not be kindled until Mahā Kassapa and his five hundred companions had saluted the Buddha's feet. Mahā Kassapa then arrived and walked three times round the pyre with bared shoulder, and it is said the Buddha's feet became visible from out of the pyre in order that he might worship them. He was followed by his five hundred colleagues, and when they had all worshipped the feet disappeared and the pyre kindled of itself .
It is said that the relics of the Buddha which fell to Ajātasattu's share were taken to Rājagaha by Kassapa, in view of that which would happen in the future. At Pāvā (on the announcement of the Buddha's death), Kassapa had heard the words of Subhadda, who, in his old age, had joined the Order, that they were "well rid of the great samana and could now do as they liked." This remark it was which had suggested to Kassapa's mind the desirability of holding a Recital of the Buddha's teachings. He announced his intention to the assembled monks, and, as the senior among them and as having been considered by the Buddha himself to be fit for such a task, he was asked to make all necessary arrangements. In accordance with his wishes, all the monks, other than the arahants chosen for the Recital, left Rājagaha during the rainy season. The five hundred who were selected met in Council under the presidency of Kassapa and recited the Dhamma and the Vinaya. This recital is called the Therasangitī or Theravāda.
The books contain numerous references to Mahā Kassapa - he is classed with Moggallāna, Kappina, and Anuruddha for his great iddhi-powers.
The Buddha regarded him as equal to himself in exhorting the monks to lead the active and zealous lives, and constantly held him up as an example to others in his great contentment and his ability to win over families by his preaching.The Buddha also thought him equal to himself in his power of attaining the jhānas and abiding therein.
Kassapa was willing to help monks along their way, and several instances are given of his exhortations to them; but he was evidently sensitive to criticism, and would not address them unless he felt them to be tractable and deferential to instruction.He was very reluctant to preach to the nuns, but on one occasion he allowed himself to be persuaded by Ānanda, and accompanied by him he visited the nunnery and preached to the nuns. He was probably not popular among them, for, at the end of his discourse, Thullatissā openly reviled him for what she called his impertinence in having dared to preach in the presence of Ānanda, "as if the needle pedlar were to sell a needle to the needle maker." Kassapa loved Ānanda dearly, and was delighted when Ānanda attained arahantship in time to attend the First Recital, and when Ānanda appeared before the arahants, it was Kassapa who led the applause (DA.i.10f). But Kassapa was very jealous of the good name of the Order, and we find him blaming Ānanda for admitting into the Order new members incapable of observing its discipline and of going about with them in large numbers, exposing the Order to the criticism of the public. "A corn trampler art thou, Ānanda," he says, "a despoiler of families, thy following is breaking up, thy youngsters are melting away," and ends up with "The boy, methinks, does not know his own measure." Ānanda, annoyed at being called "boy," protests "Surely my head is growing grey hairs, your reverence." This incident, says the Commentary took place after the Buddha's death, when Ānanda, as a new arahant and with all the honour of his intimacy with the Buddha, whose bowl and robe he now possessed, had become a notable personage.
Thullanandā heard Kassapa censuring Ānanda and raised her voice in protest, "What now? Does Kassapa, once a heretic, deem that he can chide the learned sage Ānanda?" Kassapa was hurt by her words, and complained to Ānanda that such things should be said of him who had been singled out by the Buddha for special honour.
Kassapa viewed with concern the growing laxity among members of the Order with regard to the observance of rules, even in the very lifetime of the Buddha, and the falling off in the number of those attaining arahantship, and we find him consulting the Buddha as to what should be done.
Kassapa himself did his utmost to lead an exemplary life, dwelling in the forest, subsisting solely on alms, wearing rag robes, always content with little, holding himself aloof from society, ever strenuous and energetic.
When asked why he led such a life, he replied that it was not only for his own happiness but also out of compassion for those who came after him, that they might attain to the same end. Even when he was old and the Buddha himself had asked him to give up his coarse rag robe and to dwell near him, he begged to be excused.Once, when Kassapa lay grievously ill at Pipphaliguhā, the Buddha visited him and reminded him of the seven bojjhangas which he had practised.
The knowledge that he had profited by the Master's teaching, we are told, calmed his blood and purified his system, and the sickness fell away from him "like a drop of water from a lotus leaf." He disdained being waited upon by anybody, even by a goddess such as Lājā , lest he should set a bad example.
Owing to his great saintliness, even the gods vied with each other to give alms to Kassapa. Once when he had risen from a trance lasting seven days, five hundred nymphs, wives of Sakka, appeared before him; but, snapping his fingers, he asked them to depart, saying that he bestowed his favours only on the poor.
When Sakka heard of this, he disguised himself as a weaver worn with age, and accompanied by Sujātā, transformed into an old woman, appeared in a weaver's hut along the lane where Kassapa was begging. The ruse succeeded and Kassapa accepted their alms; but, later, be discovered the truth and chided Sakka. Sakka begged forgiveness, and, on being assured that in spite of his deception the almsgiving would bring him merit, he flew into the air shouting, "Aho dānam, mahā danam, Kassapassa patitthitam." The Buddha heard this and sympathised with Sakka in his great joy.
But on one occasion so great was the importunity with which the monks of Alavi had wearied the people, that even Mahā Kassapa failed to get alms from them. The Visuddhi Magga relates a story of how once, when Kassapa was begging for alms in Rājagaha, in the company of the Buddha, on a festival day, five hundred maidens were going to the festival carrying cakes, "round like the moon." They saw the Buddha but passed him by, and gave their cakes to Kassapa. The Elder made all the cakes fill just his single bowl and offered it to the Buddha.
Sāriputta seems to have held Kassapa in great esteem, and the Kassapa Samyutta contains two discussions between them: one on the necessity for zeal and ardour in the attainment of Nibbāna, and the other on the existence of a Tathāgata after death. This regard was mutual, for when Kassapa saw the great honour paid to Sāriputta by the devas he rejoiced greatly and broke forth into song.
Kassapa lived to be very old, and, when he died, had not lain on a bed for one hundred and twenty years.
He is several times referred to in the Jātakas. Thus, he was
- the father in the Gagga Jātaka (ii.17),
- the brahmin in the Kurudhamma (ii.381),
- one of the devaputtas in the Kakkāru (iii.90),
- Mendissara in the Indriya (iii.469), and in the Sarabhanga (v.151),
- the father in the Padakusalamānava (iii.514),
- the teacher in the Tittira (iii.545),Mātali in the Bīlārakosiya (iv.69),
- one of the seven brothers in the Bhissa (iv.314),
- the bear in the Pañcuposatha (iv.332),
- the chaplain in the Hatthipāla (iv.491),
- Vidhura in the Sambhava (v.67),
- the senior ascetic in the Sankhapāla (v.177),
- Kulavaddhana setthi in the Cullasutasoma (v.192),
- Suriya in the Sudhābhojana (v.412),
- the tree sprite in the Mahāsutasoma (v.511),
- the father in the Sāma (vi.95), and Sūra Vāmagotta in the Khandahāla (vi.157).
Mahā Kassapa was so called to distinguish him from other Kassapas, and also because he was possessed of great virtues (mahanti hi sīlakkhanda hi samannāgatattā)."
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v. -- Dort Quellennachweise.]
3 Sangha-Thera: der amtshöchste Thera im Orden.
5. Satthu sarīrasārīra-
icchanto so mahāthero,
6. Lokanāthe dasabale,
vuḍḍhassaa vacanaṃ saraṃ.
a Burm.: buddhassa
7. Saraṃ cīvaradānañ ca,
samatte ṭhapanaṃ tathā;
8. Kātuṃ saddhammasaṃgītiṃ,
a Burm.: sambuddhānamate yati
9. Bhikkhū pañcasate yeva,
sammanni eken' ūne tu,
5. - 9.
Er ließ, als der Herr der Welt mit den zehn Kräften1 sieben Tage2 vollkommen erlöscht war, alle Riten am Leichnam und den Reliquien des Leichnams des Lehrers [Buddha Gotama] vollziehen.
hat er herausragende Mönche ausgewählt, die die neungliedrige Lehre7 beherrschten, die alle ihre Teile bewältigt hatten und die triebversiegt8 waren, 500 Mönche weniger einem wegen Ānanda9.
1 zehn Kräfte
- ṭhānāṭhāna-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis, was möglich und was unmöglich ist
- vipāka-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis der Reifung von Kamma in Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft mit Möglichkeiten und Ursachen
- sabbatthagāminī-paṭipadā-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis, wohin jeder Weg führt
- nānā-dhātu-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis der Welt mit ihren Elementen
- nānādhimuttika-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis der verschiedenen Neigungen der Wesen
- indriya-paro-pariyatti-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis der Fähigkeiten anderer Wesen
- jhānādi-saṅkilesa-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis der Versenkungszustände (jhāna n.), Befreiungen (vimokkha m.), Zustände der Sammlung (samādhi m.) mit ihren Befleckungen, ihrer Reinigung und Entstehung
- pubbe-nivāsānussati-ñāṇa n. -- Erinnerung an frühere Geburten
- cutūpapāta-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis des Vergehens und Entstehens der Wesen im Saṃsāra
- āsava-kkhaya-ñāṇa n. -- Erkenntnis, dass die Triebe (āsava) verschwunden sind
(Mahāsīhanādasutta : Majjhimanikāya I, 69 - 71; Nal I, 98, 7 - 101, 8; Th 12, 140 - 145; Nyanamoli III, 241 - 243)
s. Nāgārjuna: La traité de la grande vertu de sagesse (Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra) / [Trad. par] Étienne Lamotte. -- Tome III. -- p. 1505 - 1566.
2 sieben Tage: Mahākassapa war beim vollkommenen Erlöschen Buddhas nicht anwesend, sondern traf erst sieben Tage danach ein (siehe oben zu Vers 4)
3 die bösen Worte des alten Subhadda
"Subhadda. A barber of Atumā. He entered the Order and resented having to observe various rules, great and small. When the Buddha died and the monks stood weeping, Subhadda asked them to rejoice instead, saying: "We are well rid of the Mahāsamana; we shall now do just as we like." Mahā Kassapa heard this while he was on his way from Pāvā to Kusināra, and it was this remark which made him decide to hold the First Council after the Buddha's death (Vin.ii.284f; D.ii.162; Mhv.iii.6).
Subhadda had been a sāmanera at the time of the Buddha's visit to Atumā, and had two sons before he joined the Order. When he heard that the Buddha was coming, he sent for his two sons and gave orders for various foods to be collected to feed the Buddha and the twelve hundred and fifty monks. The Buddha arrived in the evening and took up his residence in Atumā. All night long Subhadda went about giving instructions regarding the preparation of the food. In the morning of the next day the Buddha went out for alms, and Subhadda approached him and invited him to partake of the food which he had prepared. But the Buddha questioned him, and, discovering what he had done, refused to accept the meal, forbidding the monks to do so too. This angered Subhadda, and he awaited an opportunity of expressing his disapproval of the Buddha. This opportunity came when he heard of the Buddha's death. (DA.ii.599; cf. Vin.i.249f.)"
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v.]
4 Gabe des Mönchsgewands durch Buddha an ihn: (siehe oben zu Vers 4)
katamo ca puggalo sammāsambuddho?
idh' ekacco puggalo pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaṃ saccāni abhisambujjhati; tathā ca sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇāti, balesu ca vasībhāvaṃ. ayaṃ vuccati puggalo sammāsambuddho. (Puggalapaññatti I, 28)
"Welche Person ist ein Sammāsambuddha (vollkommener Buddha)?
Da erwacht eine Person vollkommen zu den Wahrheiten ohne diese Gesetzmäßigkeiten zuvor (von jemand anderem) gehört zu haben; und er erlangt (virtuelle) Allwissenheit und Macht über die (zehn) Kräfte. Eine solche Person nennt man vollkommener Buddha."
- ein Sammāsambuddha hat ohne Anleitung durch jemand anderen die vier edlen Wahrheiten im Allgemeinen und im Besonderen vollkommen erkannt
- er ist virtuell allwissend, d.h. in allem, wozu er sich äußert, unfehlbar
- er hat Macht über die zehn Kräfte eines Buddha
6 gemeinsame Rezitation = saṃgīti = "Konzil"
7 neungliedrige Lehre
(z.B. M 1,133)
8 triebversiegt (khīnāsava), d.h. Arhant.Āsava -- Triebe
- kāmāsava -- Sinnlichkeitstrieb
- bhavāsava -- Existenztrieb
- avijjāsava -- Unwissenheitstrieb
(z.B: Mahāparinibbānasutta : Dīghanikāya II, 81; Nal II, 66, 1-2; Th 10, 96)Ariya-puggala m. -- Edle Personen
- sotāpanna m. -- Stromeingetretener (s. II.3.37. ): hat die ersten drei saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln (s. II.10.6. ) überwunden, nämlich:
- 1. sakkāya-diṭṭhi f. -- Falscher Glaube an ein Ich
- 2. vicikicchā f. -- Zweifel
- 3. sīla-bbata-parāmasa m. -- Hängen an Sittlichkeit und religiösen Gelübden
- sakad-āgāmī m. -- Einmalwiederkehrer: hat die ersten drei saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln überwunden; hat nur noch ganz schwach folgende Fesseln:
- 4. kāma-chanda m. -- Gier nach Objekten der Sinneswelt
- 5. vyāpāda m. -- Übelwollen
- an-āgāmī m. -- Nicht-Wiederkehrer (s. II.5.13.) hat die ersten fünf saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln d.h. alle niederen Fesseln) überwunden.
- arahanta m. -- Arahat (s. II.4.4.) hat alle zehn saṃyojana n. -- Fesseln überwunden, nämlich die genannten niedrigen und folgende höhere:
- 6. rūpa-rāga m. -- Gier nach der feinstofflichen Welt der Formen
- 7. a-rūpa-rāga m. -- Gier nach der unstofflichen Welt
- 8. māna m. -- Abhängigkeit vom sozialen Feld
- 9. uddhacca n. -- Aufgeregtheit
- 10. avijjā f. -- Nichtwissen
(z.B. Mahālisutta : Dīghanikāya I, 156; Nal I, 133, 1-19; Th 9, 199 - 120)
9 Ānanda: weil er im Unterschied zu den 499 Mönchen noch kein Arhant war.
"Ānanda.-One of the principal disciples of the Buddha. He was a first cousin of the Buddha and was deeply attached to him.
He came to earth from Tusita and was born on the same day as the Bodhisatta, his father being Amitodana the Sākiyan, brother of Suddhodana. Mahānāma and Anuruddha were therefore his brothers (or probably step-brothers).Ānanda entered the Order in the second year of the Buddha's ministry, together with other Sākiyan princes, such as Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu, Kimbila and Devadatta, and was ordained by the Buddha himself, his upajjhāya being Belatthasīsa (ThagA.i.68; also DA.ii.418ff.; Vin.i.202; iv. 86). Soon after, he heard a discourse by Punna Mantāniputta and became a sotāpanna.
During the first twenty years after the Enlightenment, the Buddha did not have the same personal attendants all the time. From time to time various monks looked after him, among them being Nāgasamāla, Nāgita, Upavāna, Sunakkhatta, the novice Cunda, Sāgata, Rādha and Meghiya. We are told that the Buddha was not particularly pleased with any of them. At the end of twenty years, at an assembly of the monks, the Buddha declared that he was advanced in years and desired to have somebody as his permanent body-servant, one who would respect his wishes in every way. The Buddha says that sometimes his attendants would not obey him, and on certain occasions had dropped his bowl and robe and gone away, leaving him.
All the great disciples offered their services, but were rejected by the Buddha. Ānanda alone was left; he sat in silence. When asked why he did not offer himself, his reply was that the Buddha knew best whom to choose. When the Buddha signified that he desired to have Ānanda, the latter agreed to accept the post on certain conditions. The Buddha was never to give him any choice food or garment gotten by him, nor appoint for him a separate "fragrant cell" (residence), nor include him in the invitations accepted by the Buddha. For, he said, if the Buddha did any of these things, some would say that Ānanda's services to the Buddha were done in order to get clothes, good fare and lodging and be included in the invitations. Further he was to be allowed to accept invitations on behalf of the Buddha; to bring to the Buddha those who came to see him from afar; to place before the Buddha all his perplexities, and the Buddha was to repeat to him any doctrine taught in his absence. If these concessions were not granted, he said, some would ask where was the advantage of such service. Only if these privileges were allowed him would people trust him and realise that the Buddha had real regard for him. The Buddha agreed to the conditions.
Thenceforth, for twenty-five years, Ānanda waited upon the Buddha, following him like a shadow, bringing him water and toothpick, washing his feet, accompanying him everywhere, sweeping his cell and so forth. By day he was always at hand, forestalling the Master's slightest wish; at night, stout staff and large torch in hand, he would go nine times round the Buddha's Gandha-kuti in order to keep awake, in case he were needed, and also to prevent the Buddha's sleep from being disturbed.
Many examples are given of- Ānanda's solicitude for the Buddha, particularly during the Buddha's last days, as related in the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta. Ānanda was the Buddha's equal in age (having been born on the same day), and it is touching to read of this old and most devoted attendant ministering to his eminent cousin, fetching him water, bathing him, rubbing his body, preparing his bed, and receiving last instructions from him on various matters of importance. It is said that when the Buddha was ill, Ānanda became sympathetically sick. He was aware of every change that occurred in the Buddha's body.
Once, when acting on the instructions of Devadatta, the royal mahouts let loose Nālāgiri, maddened with drink, on the Buddha's path, so that he might trample the Buddha to death, Ānanda, seeing the animal rushing towards them, immediately took his stand in front of the Buddha. Three times the Buddha forbade him to do so, but Ānanda, usually most obedient, refused to move, and it is said that the Buddha, by his iddhi-power, made the earth roll back in order to get Ānanda out of the elephant's path.
Sometimes, the extreme zealousness of Ānanda drew on him the Buddha's rebuke - e.g., when he prepared tekatuka gruel (gruel with three kinds of pungent substances) for the Buddha when he was suffering from wind in the stomach. The gruel was prepared from food kept indoors and was cooked by Ānanda himself, indoors; this was against the rules, but Ānanda knew that the gruel would cure the Buddha.
Ānanda was most efficient in the performance of the numerous duties attached to his post. Whenever the Buddha wished to summon the monks or to send a message to anyone, it was to Ānanda that he entrusted the task.
He reported to the Buddha any news which he beard and thought interesting.
Laymen and laywomen, wishing to give alms to the Buddha and the monks, would often consult him in their difficulties, and he would always advise them.
When the monks came to him expressing their desire to hear the Buddha preach, he did his best to grant their wish.
Sometimes when Ānanda felt that an interview with the Buddha would be of use to certain people, he would contrive that the Buddha should talk to them and solve their doubts; thus, for instance, he arranged an interview for the Nigantha Saccaka and the brahmins Sangārava and Rammaka. Similarly he took Samiddhi to the Buddha when he found that Samiddhi had wrongly represented the Buddha's views. When he discovered that Kimbila and a large number of other monks would greatly benefit if the Buddha would preach to them on ānāpānasati, he requested the Buddha that he should do so.
Again, when at Vesāli, as a result of the Buddha's talks to the monks on asubha, a large number of them, feeling shame and loathing for their bodies, committed suicide, Ānanda suggested to the Buddha that he might teach the monks some method by which they might obtain insight (aññā).
In order that people might still worship the Buddha when he was away on tour, Ānanda planted the Ānanda-Bodhi (q.v.).
Ānanda was, however, careful that people should not weary the Buddha unnecessarily. Even when he told the Buddha about the suicide of the monks (mentioned above), he was careful to wait till the Buddha had finished his fortnight's solitude, because he had given orders that he should not be disturbed.
When Subhadda wanted to see the Buddha as he lay on his death-bed, Ānanda refused to let him in until expressly asked to do so by the Master. That same day when the Mallas of Kusinārā came with their families to pay their last respects to the Buddha, Ānanda arranged them in groups, and introduced each group so that the ceremony might be gone through without delay.
He often saved the Buddha from unpleasantness by preventing too pious admirers from trying to persuade the Buddha to do what was against his scruples.
Among Ānanda's duties was the task of going round to put away anything which might have been forgotten by anyone in the congregation after hearing the Buddha preach .
Ānanda was often consulted by colleagues on their various difficulties. Thus we find Vangīsa confiding to him his restlessness at the sight of women and asking for his advice. Among others who came to him with questions on various doctrinal matters were Kāmabhū, Udāyi, Channa, and Bhadda. Nor were these consultations confined to his fellow-monks, for we find the brahmins Ghosita and Unnābha, the Licchavis Abhaya and Panditakumāraka, the paribbājakas Channa and Kokanuda, the upāsikā Migasālā, a householder of Kosambī and Pasenadi Kosala, all coming to him for enlightenment and instruction.
Sometimes the monks, having heard a brief sermon from the Buddha, would seek out Ānanda to obtain from him a more detailed exposition, for he had the reputation of being able to expound the Dhamma.
It is said that the Buddha would often deliberately shorten his discourse to the monks so that they might be tempted to have it further explained by Ānanda. They would then return to the Buddha and report to him Ānanda's exposition, which would give him an opportunity of praising Ānanda's erudition.
In the Sekha Sutta we are told that after the Buddha had preached to the Sākiyans of Kapilavatthu till late at night, he asked Ānanda to continue the discourse while he himself rested. Ānanda did so, and when the Buddha awoke after his sleep, he commended Ānanda on his ability. On another occasion, the Buddha asks Ānanda to address the monks on the wonders attendant on a Buddha's birth, and the Acchari-yabbhuta-Dhamma Sutta is the result. The Buddha is mentioned as listening with approval.
Sometimes Ānanda would suggest to the Buddha a simile to be used in his discourse, e.g. the Dhammayāna simile; or by a simile suggest a name to be given to a discourse, e.g. the Madhupindika Sutta; or again, particularly wishing to remember a certain Sutta, he would ask the Buddha to give it a name, e.g. the Bahudhātuka Sutta.
Several instances occur of Ānanda preaching to the monks of his own accord and also to the laity. The Sandaka Sutta records a visit paid by Ānanda with his followers to the paribbājaka Sandaka, and describes how he won Sandaka over by a discourse. Sometimes, as in the case of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta Ānanda would repeat to the assembly of monks a sermon which he had previously heard the Buddha preach. Ānanda took the fullest advantage of the permission granted to him by the Buddha of asking him any question he desired. He had a very inquiring mind; if the Buddha smiled he would ask the reason.
Or if he remained silent, Ānanda had to be told the reason. He knew that the Buddha did nothing without definite cause; when Upavāna, who stood fanning the Buddha, was asked to move away, Ānanda wished to know the reason, and was told that Upavāna prevented various spirits from seeing the Buddha. The Buddha was always willing to answer Ānanda's questions to his satisfaction. Sometimes, as in the case of his question regarding the dead citizens of Ñātikā, a long discourse would result.
Most often his consultations with the Buddha were on matters of doctrine or were connected with it - e.g., on nirodha (S.iii.24); loka (S.iv.53); suñña (S.iv.54; M.iii.104-24); vedanā (S.iv.219-21) ; iddhi (S.v.282-4; 286); ānāpānasati (S.v.328-34); bhava, etc. (A.i.223f.); on the chalabhijāti of Pūrana Kassapa (q.v.); the aims and purposes of sīla (A.v.1f., repeated in v.311f.); the possibilities of samādhi (A.v.7f., repeated in v.318 and in A.i.132f.); on sanghabheda (A.v.75ff.); the qualities requisite to be a counsellor of monks (A.iv.279ff.); the power of carrying possessed by a Buddha's voice (A.i.226f.); the conditions necessary for a monk's happiness (A.iii.132f.); the different ways of mastering the elements (M.iii.62f.); the birthplace of "noble men" (DhA.iii.248); and the manner in which previous Buddhas kept the Fast-day (DhA.iii.246). To these should be added the conversations on numerous topics recorded in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta. Some of these questions - e.g., about earthquakes (D.ii.107ff.; A.iv.312ff.) and the different kinds of spirits present at the death of the Buddha (D.ii.139f.) - seem to have been put into Ānanda's mouth in order that they might be used as pegs on which to hang beliefs connected with them which were current among later-day Buddhists.
Not all the Suttas addressed to Ānanda are, however, the result of his questions. Sometimes he would repeat to the Buddha conversations he had had with others and talks he had overheard, and the Buddha would expound in detail the topics occurring therein.
Thus, for instance, a conversation with Pasenadi Kosala on Kalyānamittatā is repeated and the Buddha explains its importance (S.i.87-9; v.2-3) ; Ānanda tells the Buddha about his visit to the Paribbajakārāma in Kosambi and what he there heard about a bhikkhu being called niddasa after twelve years of celibacy. The Buddha thereupon expounds the seven niddasavatthu (A.iv.37ff.). The account conveyed by Ānanda of Udāyī preaching to a large crowd leads to an exposition of the difficulties of addressing large assemblies and the qualities needed to please them (A.iii.184). A conversation between Udāyī and the carpenter Pañcakanga on feelings is overheard by Ānanda and reported to the Buddha, who gives a detailed explanation of his views on the subject (S.iv.222f.; M.i.397f.). The same thing happens when Ānanda mentions to the Buddha talks he had heard between Sāriputta and the Pāribbājakas (S.ii.35-7) and between the same Elder and Bhūmiya (S.ii.39-41). Sometimes - as in the case of the upāsikā Migasālā (A.iii.347; v.137) - Ānanda would answer questions put to him as best he could, and seek the Buddha's advice and corrections of his interpretation of the Doctrine.
When the monks asked Ānanda whether the Buddha's predictions regarding the results of Devadatta's crimes were based on actual knowledge, he furnished them with no answer at all until he had consulted the Buddha (A.iii.402). Similarly, when Tapussa questions him as to why household life is not attractive to laymen, Ānanda takes him straight away to the Buddha, who is spending his siesta in the Mahāvana in Uruvelakappa (A.iv.438f.). Once Ānanda fancies that he knows all about causation, and tells the Buddha how glad he is that he should understand this difficult subject. The Buddha points out to him that he really knows very little about it and preaches to him the Mahānidāna Sutta (D.ii.55ff.; S.ii.92-3).
When Ānanda realises that the Buddha will die in a short while, with childlike simplicity, he requests the Buddha to make a last pronouncement regarding the Order (D.ii
.98 ff.; S.v.152-4).
On several occasions it is news that Ānanda brings to the Buddha - e.g., about the death of the Nigantha Nātaputta, and about Devadatta's plots, already mentioned - which provoke the Buddha to preach to him: Phagguna has died, and at his death his senses seemed very clear; so they would, says the Buddha, and proceeds to speak of the advantages of listening to the Dhamma in due season (A.iii.381f.). Or again, Girimānanda is ill and would the Buddha go and see him? The Buddha suggests that Ānanda should go and tell Girimānanda about the ten kinds of saññā (aniccasññā, etc.), and the patient will recover (A.v.108f.). Ānanda desires to retire into solitude and develop zeal and energy; would the Buddha tell him on which topics to meditate? And the Buddha preaches to him the doctrine of impermanence (S.iii.187; iv.54-5).
The Buddha, however, often preached to Ānanda without any such provocation on various topics - e.g., on the nature of the sankhāra (S.iii.3740); on the impossibility of the monk without faith attaining eminence in the sāsana (A.v.152ff.); on the power the Buddha has of knowing which doctrines would appeal to different people and of preaching accordingly (A.v.36f.); on immorality and its consequences (A.i.50f.); on the admonitions that should be addressed to new entrants to the Order (A.iii.138f.); on the advice which should be given to friends by those desiring their welfare (A.i.222).
The various topics on which the Buddha discoursed to Ānanda as recorded in the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta, have already been referred to. Some of them - e.g., on the eight assemblies, the eight positions of mastery, the eight stages of deliverance (D.ii.112) - seem to be stereotyped later additions. On the other hand, with regard to the accounts of the honours to be paid to a Buddha's dead body, the places of pilgrimage for the pious, and various other similar subjects, it is impossible to say how far they are authentic. In a few instances the remarks addressed to Ānanda seem to be meant for others, to be heard by them or to be conveyed to them - e.g., in the dispute between Udāyī and Sāriputta, when they both seek the Buddha for him to settle the differences in opinion between them (A.iii.192ff.); or, again, when the recalcitrant Udāyī fails to answer the Buddha's question on subjects of reflection (anussatitthāna), and Ānanda gives an answer which the Buddha approves (A.iii.322ff.). A question asked by Ānanda as to whether there are any scents which spread even against the wind, results in the well-known sermon about the fame of the holy man being wafted everywhere (A.i.222f.; DhA.i.420ff.). Once or twice Ānanda intervenes in a discussion between the Buddha and another, either to ask a question or to suggest a simile which he feels could help the Buddha in establishing his point - e.g., in the interviews of Uttiya Paribbājaka (A.v.194), of the brahmin Sangārava (A.i.169), and again of Vidūdabha, son of Pasenadi (M.ii.130).
In the Mahā Mālunkyā Sutta (M.i.433), it is Ānanda's intervention which evokes the discourse on the Five Fetters. Similarly he intervenes in a discussion between the Buddha and Pārāsariya's pupil, Uttara, and persuades the Buddha to preach the Indriyabhāvanā Sutta on the cultivation of the Faculties (M.iii.298ff.).
Buddhaghosa gives a list of the discourses which bring out the eminence and skill of Ānanda; they are the Sekha, Bāhitiya, Ānañjasappāya, Gopaka-Moggallāna, Bahudhātuka, Cūlasuññata, Mahāsuññata, Acchariyabbhuta, Bhaddekaratta, Mahānidā-na, Mahāparinibbāna, Subha and Cūlaniyalokadhātu. (For particulars of these see under the respective names.) The books give accounts of several conversations between Ānanda and his eminent colleagues, such as Sāriputta. See also his conversation with Musīla, and Savittha and Nārada at Kosambī in the Ghositārāma (S.ii.113f.). He seems to have felt happy in their company and did not hesitate to take to them his difficulties; thus we find him asking Sāriputta why only certain beings in this world reach parinibbāna (A.ii.167); on another occasion he asks Sāriputta about the possibilities of samādhi (A.v.8). On the other hand, at least twice (A.iii.201f.; 361f.), when Ānanda asks his questions of Sāriputta, the latter suggests that Ānanda himself should find the answer, and having heard it, Sāriputta praises him highly and extols his abilities.
Ānanda's special friends seem to have been Sāriputta, Moggallāna, Mahā Kassapa, Anuruddha and Kankhā Revata (E.g., M.i.212f). He was the Sangha-navaka among them all, yet they held him in high esteem (MA.i.436). Ānanda and Sāriputta were very special friends. It is said that Sāriputta loved Ānanda because the latter did for the Buddha what Sāriputta would wish to have done himself, and Ānanda respected Sāriputta because he was the Buddha's chief disciple. Young men who were ordained by either of them would be sent to the other to learn under him. They shared between them any good thing given to them. Once Ānanda was presented by a brahmin with a costly robe; immediately he wished to give it to Sāriputta, but as the latter was away at the time, he obtained the Buddha's permission to keep it for him till his return (Vin.i.289; Sp.iii.636-7; MA.i.436).
The Samyutta Nikāya (i.63-4) contains an eulogy on Sāriputta by Ānanda, where the latter speaks of his comprehensive and manifold wisdom, joyous and swift, of his rampant energy and readiness to accept advice. When he hears of Sāriputta's death from Cunda the Samanuddesa, he goes to the Buddha with Cunda (not wishing to break the news himself) and they take with them Sāriputta's bowl and outer robe, Cunda carrying the ashes, and there Ānanda confesses to the Buddha that when he heard the news he felt as thought his body were drugged, his senses confused and his mind become a blank (S.v.161; Thag.vers.1034-5). The Commentary adds (SA.i.180) that Ānanda was trembling "like a cock escaping from the mouth of a cat."
That Mahā Kassapa was fond of Ānanda, we may gather from the fact that it was he who contrived to have him elected on the First Council, and when Mahā Kassapa heard of Ānanda's attainment of arahantship, it was he who led the applause (DA.i.11). Ānanda held him in the highest veneration, and on one occasion refused to take part in an upasampadā ordination because he would have to pronounce Kassapa's name and did not consider this respectful towards the Elder (Vin.i.92). In their conversations, Kassapa addresses Ānanda as "āvuso", Ānanda addresses Kassapa as "bhante." There is an interview recorded between them in which Kassapa roundly abuses Ānanda, calling him- corn-trampler" and "despoiler of families," and he ends by up saying , this boy does not know his own measure." Ānanda had been touring Dahkhinagiri with a large company of monks, mostly youths, and the latter had not brought much credit upon them selves. When Kassapa sees Ānanda on his return to Rājagaha, he puts on him the whole blame for the youths' want of training. Ānanda winces at being called "boy"; , my head is growing grey hairs, your reverence, yet I am not vexed that you should call me 'boy' even at this time of day." Thullanandā heard of this incident and showed great annoyance. "How dare Mahā Kassapa," she says, "who was once a heretical teacher, chide the sage Ānanda, calling him 'boy'?" Mahā Kassapa complains to Ānanda of Thullanandā's behaviour; probably, though we are not told so, Ānanda apologised to him on her behalf (S.ii.217ff).
On another occasion, Ānanda, after a great deal of persuasion, took Kassapa to a settlement of the nuns. There Kassapa preached to them, but the nun Thullatissā was not pleased and gave vent publicly to her displeasure. "How does Kassapa think it fit to preach the doctrine in the presence of the learned sage Ānanda? It is as if the needle-pedlar were to deem he could sell a needle to the needle-maker." Kassapa is incensed at these words, but Ānanda appeases him by acknowledging that he (Kassapa) is in every way his superior and asks him to pardon Tissa. "Be indulgent, your reverence," says he, "women are foolish."
In this passage Ānanda is spoken of as Vedehamuni. The Commentary (SA.ii.132) explains it by panditamuni, and says further, pandito hi ñānasankhātena vedena īhati sabbakiccāni karoti, tasmā vedeho ti vuccati ; vedeho ca so muni cā ti vedehamuni.
It was perhaps Ānanda's championship of the women's cause which made him popular with the nuns and earned for him a reputation rivalling, as was mentioned above, even that of Mahā Kassapa. When Pajāpatī Gotamī, with a number of Sākyan women, undaunted by the Buddha's refusal of their request at Kapilavatthu, followed him into Vesāli and there beseeched his consent for women to enter the Order, the Buddha would not change his mind.
Ānanda found the women dejected and weeping, with swollen feet, standing outside the Kūtāgārasālā. Having learnt what had happened, he asked the Buddha to grant their request. Three times he asked and three times the Buddha refused. Then he changed his tactics. He inquired of the Buddha if women were at all capable of attaining the Fruits of the Path. The answer was in the affirmative, and Ānanda pushed home the advantage thus gained. In the end the Buddha allowed women to enter the Order subject to certain conditions. They expressed their great gratitude to Ānanda. In this connection, the Buddha is reported as having said (Vin.ii.256) that had Ānanda not persuaded him to give his consent to the admission of women to the Order, the Sāsana would have lasted a thousand years, but now it would last only five hundred.
This championing of the women's cause was also one of the charges brought against Ānanda by his colleagues at the end of the First Council. (See below.)
Perhaps it was this solicitude for their privileges that prompted him to ask the Buddha one day why it was that women did not sit in public assemblies (e.g. courts of justice), or embark on business, or reap the full fruit of their actions.
That Ānanda was in the habit of preaching frequently to the nuns is evident from the incidents quoted above and also from other passages. He seems also to have been in charge of the arrangements for sending preachers regularly to the nuns. A passage in the Samyutta Commentary seems to indicate that Ānanda was a popular preacher among laywomen as well.
They would stand round him when he preached, fanning him and asking him questions on the Dhamma. When he went to Kosambī to impose the higher penalty on Channa, the women of King Udena's harem, hearing of his presence in the park, came to him and listened to his preaching. So impressed were they that they gave him five hundred robes. It was on this occasion that Ānanda convinced Udena of the conscientiousness with which the Sākyaputta monks used everything which was given to them, wasting nothing. The king, pleased with Ānanda, gave him another five hundred robes, all of which he distributed among the community.
Ānanda had been a tailor in a past birth and had given a Pacceka Buddha a piece of cloth, the size of his hand, and a needle. Because of the gift of the needle he was wise, because of the cloth he got 500 robes.
A similar story is related of the women of Pasenadi's palace and their gift to Ānanda. The king was at first angry, but afterwards gave Ānanda one thousand robes.
The Dhammapada Commentary says that once Pasenadi asked the Buddha to go regularly to the palace with five hundred monks and preach the Law to his queens Mallikā and Vāsabhakhattiyā and to the other women in the palace. When the Buddha said that it was impossible for him to go regularly to one place he was asked to send a monk, and the duty was assigned to Ānanda. He therefore went to the palace at stated times and instructed the queens. Mallikā was found to be a good student, but not so Vāsabhakhattiyā.
The Jātaka Commentary says that the women of the palace were themselves asked which of the eighty chief disciples they would have as their preacher and they unanimously chose Ānanda. For an incident connected with Ānanda's visits to the palace see the Mahāsāra Jātaka and also Pasenadi.
According to the Anguttara Commentary Ānanda was beautiful to look at.
Ānanda's services seem often to have been sought for consoling the sick. Thus we find Anāthapindika sending for him when he lay ill, and also Sirivaddha and Mānadinna . He is elsewhere mentioned as helping the Buddha to wait on a sick monk. We are told that when the Buddha had his afternoon siesta, Ānanda would spend his time in waiting upon the sick and talking to them. Ānanda was never too busy to show gratitude to his friends. When a certain crow-keeper's family, members of which had been of special service to him, had been destroyed by a pestilence, leaving only two very young boys, he obtained the Buddha's special permission to ordain them and look after them, though they were under the requisite age.
When Ānanda discovered that his friend Roja and Malla had no real faith in the Buddha, he was greatly grieved and interceded on his special behalf with the Buddha that he should make Roja a believer. Later he obtained the Buddha's permission for Roja to offer a meal of potherbs. In another place we find Roja presenting Ānanda with a linen cloth. According to the Jātakatthakathā Roja once tried to persuade Ānanda to go back to the lay-life.
His sympathy is also shown in the story of the woman who asked to have a share in the Vihāra built by Visākhā. She brought a costly carpet, but could find no place in which to put it; it looked so poor beside the other furnishings. Ānanda helped her in her disappointment
Once in Jetavana, in an assembly of monks, the Buddha spoke the praises of Ānanda, and ranked him the foremost bhikkhu in five respects: erudition, good behaviour (gatimantānam, power of walking, according to Dhammapāla), retentive memory, resoluteness and personal attention. Again, shortly before the Buddha's death, he speaks affectionately of Ānanda; Ānanda knew the right time to bring visitors to the Tathāgata; he had four exceptional qualities, in that whoever came to see him, monks or nuns, laymen or laywomen, they were all filled with joy on beholding him; when he preached to them they listened with rapture and delight, which never tired.
Another proof of the Buddha's esteem for Ānanda is the incident of his asking Ānanda to design a robe for the monks to be in pattern like a field in Magadha.
In spite of Ānanda having been the constant companion of the Buddha - probably because of that very fact - it was not until after the Buddha's parinibbāna that Ānanda was able to realise Arahantship. Though he was not an arahant he had the patisambhidā, being among the few who possessed this qualification while yet learners (Sekhā). When it was decided by Mahā Kassapa and others that a Convocation should be held to systematise the Buddha's teachings, five hundred monks were chosen as delegates, among them, Ānanda. He was, however, the only non-arahant (sekha) among them, and he had been enjoined by his colleagues to put forth great effort and repair this disqualification. At length, when the convocation assembled, a vacant seat had to be left for him. It had not been until late the previous night that, after a final supreme effort, he had attained the goal.
It is said that he won sixfold abhiññā when he was just lying down to sleep, his head hardly on the pillow, his feet hardly off the ground. He is therefore described as having become an arahant in none of the four postures. When he appeared in the convocation, Mahā Kassapa welcomed him warmly and shouted three times for joy. According to the Majjhimabhānakā, says Buddhaghosa, Ānanda appeared on his seat while the others looked on, having come through the earth; according to others he came through the air. According to ThagA.ii.130, it was a Brahmā of the Suddhāvāsa who announced Ānanda's attainment of arahantship to his colleagues at the Convocation.
In the convocation, Ānanda was appointed to answer Mahā Kassapa's questions, and to co-operate with him in rehearsing the Dhamma (as opposed to the Vinaya).
Ānanda came to be known as Dhammabhandāgārika, owing to his skill in remembering the word of the Buddha; it is said that he could remember everything spoken by the Buddha, from one to sixty thousand words in the right order; and without missing one single syllable.
In the first four Nikāyas of the Sutta Pitaka, every sutta begins with the words "Thus have I heard," the "I" referring to Ānanda. It is not stated that Ānanda was present at the preaching by the Buddha of every sutta, though he was present at most; others, the Buddha repeated to him afterwards, in accordance with the conditions under which he had become the Buddha's attendant.
We are told that Ānanda had learnt eighty-two thousand dhamma (topics) from the Buddha himself and two thousand from his colleagues. He had also a reputation for fast talking; where an ordinary man could speak one word Ānanda could speak eight; the Buddha could speak sixteen words for each one word of Ānanda. Ānanda could remember anything he had once heard up to fifteen thousand stanzas of sixty thousand lines.
Ānanda lived to be very old; a hymn of praise sung at his death is included at the end of the stanzas attributed to him in the Theragāthā. That the Buddha's death was a great blow to him is shown by the stanzas he uttered immediately after the event. Three months earlier he had heard for the first time that death of the Buddha was near at hand and had besought him to live longer. The reply attributed to the Buddha is a curious one, namely, that on several previous occasions, at Rājagaha and at Vesālī, he had mentioned to Ānanda that he could, if he so desired, live for a whole kappa, and had hinted that Ānanda should, if he felt so inclined, request him to prolong his life. Ānanda, however, having failed to take the hint on these occasions, the opportunity was now past, and the Buddha must die; the fault was entirely Ānanda's. It was when Ānanda was temporarily absent from the Buddha's side that the Buddha had assured Māra that he would die in three months.
As the end approached, the Buddha noticed that Ānanda was not by his side; on enquiry he learnt that Ānanda was outside, weeping and filled with despair at the thought that the Master would soon be no more, and that he (Ānanda) would have to work out his perfection unaided. The Buddha sent for him and consoled him by pointing out that whatever is born must, by its very nature, be dissolved. Three times he said, "For a long time, Ānanda, you have been very near to me by acts of love, kind and good, never varying, beyond all measure," and he exhorted him to be earnest in effort, for he would soon realise emancipation.
Once, earlier, when Udāyi had teased Ānanda for not having benefited from his close association with the personality of the Master, the Buddha had defended Ānanda, saying, "Say not so, Udāyi; should he die without attaining perfect freedom from passion, by virtue of his piety, he would seven times win rule over the devas and seven times be King of Jambudīpa. Howbeit, in this very life shall Ānanda attain to Nibbāna.
Ānanda did his best to persuade the Buddha to die in one of the great cities, such as Rājagaha or Sāvatthi, and not in Kusinārā, the little wattle-and-daub town (as he called it) in the middle of the jungle. He was not satisfied until the Buddha had revealed to him the past history of Kusinārā, how it had once been Kusāvatī, the royal capital of the mighty Mahā Sudassana.
Just before the Buddha died, Ānanda was commissioned to inform the Mallas of the impending event, and after the Buddha's death, Anuruddha entrusted him, with the help of the Mallas of Kusināāa, with all the arrangements for the funeral Ānanda had earlier learnt from the Buddha how the remains of a Tathāgata should be treated, and now he was to benefit by the instruction.
At the end of the First Council, the duty of handing down unimpaired the Dīgha Nikāya through his disciples was entrusted to Ānanda. He was also charged with the duty of conveying to Channa the news that the higher penalty (brahmadanda) had been inflicted on him by the Sangha. Ānanda had been deputed by the Buddha himself to carry out this, his last administrative act , but Ānanda, not wishing to undertake the responsibility alone (knowing that Channa had a reputation for roughness), was granted a number of companions, with whom he visited Channa. The latter expressed repentance and was pardoned. Perhaps it was because both the Buddha and Ānanda's colleagues knew of his power to settle disputes that he was chosen for this delicate task.
Ānanda's popularity, however, did not save him from the recriminations of his fellows for some of his actions, which, in their eyes, constituted offences. Thus he was charged with:
- having failed to find out from the Buddha which were the lesser and minor precepts which the Sangha were allowed to revoke if they thought fit;
- with having stepped on the Buddha's rainy-season garment when sewing it;
- with having allowed the Buddha's body to be first saluted by women;
- with having omitted to ask the Buddha to live on for the space of a kappa ; and
- with having exerted himself to procure the admission of women into the Order.
Ānanda's reply was that he himself saw no fault in any of these acts, but that he would confess them as faults out of faith in his colleagues.
On another occasion he was found fault with
- for having gone into the village to beg for alms, clothed in his waist-cloth and nether garment;
- for having worn light garments which were blown about by the wind.
The last years of his life, Ānanda seems to have spent in teaching and preaching and in encouraging his younger colleagues. Among those who held discussions with him after the Buddha's passing away are mentioned Dasama of the Atthakanagara, Gopaka Moggallāna and Subha Todeyyaputta.
The Pāli Canon makes no mention of Ānanda's death. Fa Hsien, however, relates what was probably an old tradition. When Ānanda was on his way from Magadha to Vesāli, there to die, Ajātasattu heard that he was coming, and, with his retinue, followed him up to the Rohini River. The chiefs of Vesali also heard the news and went out to meet him, and both parties reached the river banks. Ānanda, not wishing to incur the displeasure of either party, entered into the state of tejokasina in the middle of the river and his body went up in flames. His remains were divided into two portions, one for each party, and they built cetiyas for their enshrinement.
In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Ānanda had been the son of Ānanda, King of Hamsavatī, and was therefore a step-brother of Padumuttara. His name was Sumana. King Ānanda allowed no one but himself to wait on the Buddha. Prince Sumana having quelled an insurrection of the frontier provinces, the king offered him a boon as reward, and he asked to be allowed to entertain the Buddha and his monks for three months. With great reluctance the king agreed, provided the Buddha's consent was obtained. When Sumana went to the vihāra to obtain this, he was greatly impressed by the loyalty and devotion of the Buddha's personal attendant, the monk Sumana, and by his iddhi-powers. Having learnt from the Buddha that these were the result of good deeds, he himself determined to lead a pious life. For the Buddha's residence Prince Sumana bought a pleasaunce named Sobhana from a householder of that same name and built therein a monastery costing one hundred thousand. On the way from the capital to Sobhana Park he built vihāras, at distances of a league from each other. When all preparations were completed, the Buddha went to Sobhana with one hundred thousand monks, stopping at each vihāra on the way. At the festival of dedication of the Sobhana Vihāra, Sumana expressed a wish to become a personal attendant of a future Buddha, just as Sumana was of Padumuttara. Towards this end he did many good deeds. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he gave his upper garment to a monk for him to carry his begging-bowl in it. Later he was born in heaven and again as King of Benares. He built for eight Pacceka Buddhas eight monasteries in his royal park and for ten thousand years he looked after them. The Apadāna mentions (i.52f) that he became ruler of heaven thirty-four times and king of men fifty-eight times.
Ānanda's name occurs in innumerable Jātakas; he is identified with
- Suriyakumāra in the Devadhamma Jātaka (i.133),
- Cullalohita in the Munika (i.198),
- Pajjuna in the Maccha (i.332),
- Kālakanni in the Kālakanni (i.365),
- Rādha in the Rādha (i.496),
- Potthapāda in the Rādha II. (ii.134),
- Cullanandiya in the Cullanandiya (i.202),
- Gāmanicanda in the Gāmanicanda (ii.310),
- Cullalohita in the Sālūka (ii.420),
- Dabbasena in the Ekarāja (iii.15),
- Potthapāda in the Kalābu (iii.100),
- Bārānasīsetthi in the Pītha (iii.121),
- Vedehatāpasa in the Gandhāra (iii.369),
- Sumangala in the Sumangala (iii.444),
- Anusissa in the Indriya (iii.469),
- Mandavya in the Kanhadīpāyana (iv.37),
- Pottika in the Nigrodha (iv.43),
- Pañca-sikha in the Bilārakosiya (iv.69),
- Rohineyya in the Ghata (iv.69),
- Yudhitthila in the Yuvañjaya (iv.123),
- Bharata in the Dasaratha (iv.130),
- Mātali in the Kanha (iv.186), the Sudhābhojana (v.412), the Nimi (vi.129), and the Kulāvaka (i.206),
- Kālinga in the Kālingabodhi (iv.236),
- Vissakamma in the Suruci (iv.325),
- Sambhūtapandita in the Sambhūta (iv.401),
- Cittamiga in the Rohantamiga (iv.423),
- Sumukha in the Hamsa (iv.430),
- Anusissa in the Sarabhanga (v.151),
- Somadatta in the Cullasutasoma (v.192),
- Sunanda the charioteer in the Ummadantī (v.227),
- the younger brother of Kusa in the Kusa (v.312),
- Nanda in the Sona-Nanda (v.332),
- Sumukha in the Cūlahamsa (v.334), and the Mahāhamsa (v.382),
- the brahmin Nanda in the Mahā Sutasoma (v.511),
- Somadatta in the Bhūridatta (vi.219).
- He was also the barber in the Makhādeva (i.139),
- the antevāsika in the Asātamanta (i.289),
- the bandit-leader in the Takka (i.299),
- the brahmin in the Sārambha (i.375),
- the Sattubhasta (iii.351), the Palāsa (iii.25), the Junha (iv.100), and the Sālikedāra (iv.282);
- the tree-sprite in the Kusanāli (i.443),
- the elephant trainer in the Sumedha (i.446),
- the younger brother of the Bodhisatta in the Manikantha (ii.286),
- the marauder in the Seyya (ii.403),
- the inhabitant of a frontier village in the Mahā Assārohaka (iii.13),
- the attendant in the Sankha (iv.22),
- one of the seven brothers in the Bhisa (iv.314),
- the physician Sīvaka in the Sivi (iv.412),
- and the arrow-maker in the Mahā-Janaka (vi.68).
Several times he was born as an animal.
- Thus be was a parrot in the Saccankira (i.327), the Abbhantara (ii.400) and the Mahā-ummagga (vi.478),
- a jackal in the Guna (ii.30),
- the father-goose in the Vinīlaka (ii.40),
- the tortoise in the Kacchapa (ii.81),
- the iguana in the Cullapaduma (ii.121),
- the otter in the Sasa (iii.56),
- the younger swan in the Neru (iii.248),
- the crab in the Suvannakakkataka (iii.298),
- the wise nāga in the Mahāpaduma (iv.196),
- the tawny dog in the Mahābodhi (v.246)
- and the vulture king in the Kunāla (v.456).
He was many times king:
- in the Nigrodhamiga (i.153),
- the Kukkura (i.178),
- the Bhojājānīya (i.181),
- the Ājañña (i.182),
- the Tittha (i.185),
- the Mahilāmukha (i.188),
- the Mudulakkhana (i.306),
- the Kuddāla (i.315),
- the Mahāsupina (i.345),
- the Attisa (i.354),
- the Mahāsāra (i.387),
- the Sālittaka (i.420),
- the Bandhanamokkha (i.440),
- the Ekapanna (i.508),
- the Gagga (ii.17),
- the Suhanu (ii.32),
- the Mora (ii.38),
- the Susīma (ii.50),
- the Gijjha (ii.52),
- the Kalyānadhamma (ii.65),
- the Kalāyamutthi (ii.76),
- the Sangāmāvacara (ii.95),
- the Vālodaka (ii.97),
- the Giridanta (ii.99),
- the Pabbatūpatthara (ii.127),
- the Punnanadī (ii.175),
- the Kacchapa (ii.178),
- the Kosiya (ii.209),
- the Guttila (ii.257),
- the Sankappa (ii.277),
- the Kundaka-Kucchi-Sindhava (ii.291)
- the Siri (ii.415),
- the Nānacchanda (ii.429),
- the Supatta (ii.436),
- the Chavaka (iii.30),
- the Sayha (iii.33),
- the Brahmadatta (iii.81),
- the Rājovāda (iii.112),
- the Kesava (iii.145),
- the Sussondi (iii.190),
- the Avāriya (iii.232),
- the Nandiyamiga (iii.274),
- the Dhajavihetha (iii.307),
- the Kukku (iii.321),
- the Sutanu (iii.330),
- the Atthisena (iii.355),
- the Mahākapi (iii.375),
- the Dalhadhamma (iii.388),
- the Susīma (iii.397),
- the Atthasadda (iii.434),
- the Atthāna (iii.478),
- the Cullabodhi (iv.27),
- the Mātiposaka (iv.95),
- the Bhaddasāla (iv.157),
- the Mittāmitta (iv.199),
- the Amba (iv.207),
- the Javahamsa (iv.218),
- the Dūta (iv.228),
- the Rurumiga (ii.263),
- the Sarabhamiga (ii.275),
- the Uddālaka (iv.304),
- the Dasabrāhmana (iv.368),
- the Bhikkhāparampara (iv.374),
- the Sattigumba (iv.437),
- the Kumbha (v.20),
- the Tesakuna (v.125)
- and the Sāma (vi.95).
He was King of Benares in the Kāka (i.486), the Tacasāra (iii.206) and the Sankhapāla (v.177); King Mallika in the Rājovāda (ii.5), the Kosala King in the Manikundala (iii.155), King Vanka in the Ghata (iii.170), the Kosavya King in the Dhūmakāri (iii.402), King Addhamāsaka in the Gangamāla (iii.454), and King Dhanañjaya in the Sambhava (v.67), and the Vidhurapandita (vi.329).
In the Mahā Nāradakassapa Jātaka Ānanda was born as Rujā, daughter of King Angati.
The Dhammapada Commentary states that once when Ānanda was a blacksmith he sinned with the wife of another man. As a result, he suffered in hell for a long time and was born for fourteen existences as some one's wife, and it was seven existences more before the results of his evil deed were exhausted.
There seems to be some confusion as to the time at which Ānanda entered the Order. In the Canonical account he became a monk in the second year of the Buddha's ministry. In the verses attributed to him in the Theragātha , however, he says that he has been for twenty five years a learner (sekha). It is concluded from this that Ānanda must have joined the Order only in the twentieth year after the Enlightenment and the whole story of his having been ordained at the same time as Devadatta is discredited. . The verses occur in a lament by Ānanda that his master is dead and that he is yet a learner. The twenty-five years which Ānanda mentions probably refer to the period during which he had been the Buddha's personal attendant and not to his whole career as a monk. During that period, "though he was but a learner, no thoughts of evil arose in him," the implication being that his close connection with the Buddha and his devotion to him gave no room for such. He, nevertheless, laments that he could not become an asekha while the Buddha was yet alive. If this interpretation be accepted - and I see no reason why it should not be - there is no discrepancy in the accounts of Ānanda's ordination."
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v. -- Dort Quellennachweise.]
10. Puna Ānandattherāpi,
sammanni kātuṃ saṃgītiṃ,
sā na sakkā hi taṃ vinā.
Auch der Thera Ānanda, den die Mönche wiederholt darum baten, stimmte zu, eine gemeinsame Rezitation abzuhalten. Eine solche war nämlich ohne ihn unmöglich.
a Geiger: dhātupūjanaṃ
12. Vassaṃ vasaṃa Rājagahe,
nāññehi tatta vatthabbam
iti katvāna nicchayaṃ.
b Geiger: karissāma
11. - 12.
Die Mönche, die sich der ganzen Welt erbarmten1, verbrachten sieben Tage mit guten Feiern, sieben Tage mit der Teilung (bzw. Verehrung) von Buddhas Reliquien, insgesamt also einen halben Monat. Dann fassten den Entschluss: "Wir wollen während wir die Regenzeit2 in Rājagaha3 verbringen die Lehre zusammenfassen. Andere Mönche4 sollen sich hier nicht aufhalten."
1 der ganzen Welt erbarmten: deswegen wollen sie die Buddhaworte endgültig abgrenzen (zusammenfassen).
2 RegenzeitVassāvāsa m. -- Sesshaftigkeit der Mönche während der Regenzeit (vassa)
Vajirañāṇavarorasa: The entrance to the Vinaya = Vinayamukha. -- [Transl. from Thai]. -- Bangkok : Mahāmakuṭarājavidyālaya. -- Vol. 2. -- 2516 = 1973. -- [The training-rules outside the Pāṭimokkha]. -- S. 84 - 93.
Wells, Kenneth E.: Thai Buddhism : its rites and activities. -- 3rd printing (updated). -- Bangkok : Suriyabun Publishers, 1975. -- S. 165 - 170 (ceremony of entering vassa)
- Während drei Monaten der Regenzeit müssen Mönche an einem Ort sesshaft bleiben
- Für diese Zeit müssen sie in der Regenzeit angemessenen Behausungen wohnen, z.B. nicht unter einem Schirm oder in einer Baumhöhle
- Zu Beginn der Regenzeit müssen die Mönche einen Ort formell für ihren Aufenthalt während der Regenzeit bestimmen (adhiṭṭhāna n.). An diesem Ort müssen sie bis zur Pavārānā bleiben
- Wenn ein Mönch während der Regenzeit aus einem triftigen Grund über Nacht wegbleiben muss, dann kann er das bis zu sieben Tage machen. Bleibt er länger als sieben Tage von seinem Regenzeit-Wohnsitz weg, dann hat er die Regenzeit gebrochen
- Bei drohender schwerer Gefahr für das leibliche oder geistliche Wohl eines Mönches, kann er die Regenzeit brechen, ohne dass es ein ordensrechtliches Vergehen ist
3 Rājagaha: zur Zeit des Buddha Gautama Hauptstadt des Königreichs Magadha, heute Rājgīr. Lage siehe oben zu Vers 1./2.
Abb.: Reste der Befestigung von Rājagaha mit Südtor
[Bildquelle: Prince Roy. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/princeroy/93462413/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-05-26]
4 Andere Mönche, da sie als nicht kompetent befunden werden für die Aufgabe des Konzils. Hielten sie sich aber in Rājagaha auf, hätten sie aufgrund der Bestimmungen über sīmā Teilnahmeberechtigung am sanghakamma Konzil.simā-vipatti f. -- Defekt bezüglich der simā -- der Abgrenzung des Gebietes für sanghakamma's
Die Rechtsmaterie sīmā (f.) ist sehr kompliziert. Hier nur ein paar Grundbegriffe.
s. Vajirañāṇavarorasa: The entrance to the Vinaya = Vinayamukha. -- [Transl. from Thai]. -- Bangkok : Mahāmakuṭarājavidyālaya. -- Vol. 3. -- 2526 = 1983. -- p. 14 - 52.
Zeremonien und Rechtsakte:
Wells, Kenneth E.: Thai Buddhism : its rites and activities. -- 3rd printing (updated). -- Bangkok : Suriyabun Publishers, 1975. -- S. 178 - 183.
Es geht darum zu bestimmen, welche Mönche an sanghakamma teilnahmeberechtigt sind und bei Entscheidungen ein Recht auf Gehör haben. Diese Bestimmung geschieht gebietsmäßig: alle Mönche, die sich an einem Ort befinden. Wie ist aber dieser eine Ort definiert? Um Rechtssicherheit zu schaffen, müssen die Grenzen (sīmā) dieses einen Ortes festgelegt sein. Ein sanghakamma ohne feste sīmā ist ungültig: denn dann kann die Einmütigkeit (sāmaggī) des sangha nicht festgestellt werden (es könnte im Nachhinein ein Mönch sagen, dass er nicht Gehör bekommen hat).
Wichtigste Arten von sīmā f.:
- baddha-sīmā f. -- Abgrenzung, die durch sangha selbst gemacht wurde: dabei gehören zum sangha alle Mönche, die sich zu dem Zeitpunkt auf dem Gelände zwischen den vorgesehenen sīmā befinden. Man muss dafür Sorge tragen, dass während der Zeremonie keine anderen Mönche dieses Gelände betreten. Die sīmā müssen mit nimitta n. -- Grenzzeichen klar markiert werden.
- abaddha-sīmā f. -- Abgrenzung durch weltliche Autoritäten (z.B. Dörfer als politische Einheiten) u.ä.
13. Sokāturaṃ tattha tattha,
Jambudīpamhi te therā,
a Burm.: assāsento
Dann wanderten diese Theras in Indien1 umher und trösteten an verschiedenen Orten viele (wegen Buddhas Dahinscheiden) bekümmerte Leute.
1 Jambudīpa = Indien
Abb.: "Lage" des Kontinents Jambudīpa
a Burm.: Āsaḷhisukkapakkhamhi
In der Zeit des zunehmenden Mondes des Monats Āsalha1 gingen sie, die den Bestand der guten Lehre wollten2, nach Rājagaha, wo die vier materiellen Grundlagen3 des Mönchslebens reichlich vorhanden waren.
Die Monate nach dem indischen Mondkalender sind:
Monatsname fällt in Monate bzw. 1 Citta Februar/März März/April 2. Vesākha März/April April/Mai 3 Jeṭṭha April/Mai Mai/Juni 4 Āsāḷha Mai/Juni Juni/Juli 5 Sāvaṇa Juni/Juli Juli/August 6. Poṭṭhapāda Juli/August August/September 7. Assayuja August/September September/Oktober 8. Kattika September/Oktober Oktober/November 9. Maggasira/Māgasira Oktober/November November/Dezember 10. Phussa November/Dezember Dezember/Januar 11. Māgha Dezember/Januar Januar/Februar 12. Phagguna Januar/Februar Februar/März
"Āṣāḍha (Hindi: आसाढ़ āsārh or आषाढ āṣāḍh) is a month of the Hindu calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Āṣāḍh is the fourth month of the year, beginning on 22 June and ending on 22 July.
In lunar religious calendars, Āṣāḍh may begin on either the new moon or the full moon around the same time of year, and is usually the fourth month of the year.
In solar religious calendars, Āṣāḍh begins with the Sun's entry into Gemini, and is usually the third month of the year."
[Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aashaadha. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-01]
2 Im Pāli Wortspiel mit sukkapakkha = helle Hälfte des Mondmonats, sowie = leuchtende Lehre (pakkha = Meinung in einer Diskussion)
3 die vier materiellen Grundlagen des Mönchslebens (paccaya):
- piṇḍa-pāta m. -- Almosenspeise:
Grundform: Gang um Almosenspeise
Zusätzlich erlaubte Formen:
- saṅgha-bhatta n. -- Essen, das einem ganzen sangha gegeben wird
- uddesa-bhatta n. -- Essen, das für bestimmte Mönche gegeben wird
- nimantana n. -- Einladung zum Essen
- salaka-bhatta n. -- Essen, das verlost wird
- pakkhika n. -- ein regelmäßiges Essen alle vierzehn Tage
- uposathika n. -- ein regelmäßiges Essen an den Vollmondtagen
- paṭipadika n. -- ein regelmäßiges Essen am Tag nach dem Vollmond bzw. am Neumondtag
- cīvara n. -- Mönchsgewand
Grundform: paṃsu-kula-cīvara n. -- Weggeworfene Lumpen, die man wäscht und färbt und zusammennäht.
Zusätzlich erlaubte Formen: Mönchsgewand aus:
- eine Mischung aus den Genannten
- senāsana n. -- Wohnstätte
Grundform: rukkha-mūla m. -- am Fuß eines Baumes
Zusätzlich erlaubte Formen: verschiedene Arten von Gebäuden sowie Höhlen
- bhesajja n. -- Arzneien
Grundform: pūti-mutta -- verfaulter Urin
Zusätzlich erlaubte Formen:
- Butterschmalz (Ghee)
15. Tattheva vassūpagatā,
Dort traten Mahākassapa und die übrigen Theras die Regenzeit1 an. Sie waren andauernd voller Tugend und kannten die Lehre des vollkommenen Buddha.
1 durch die Zeremonie des adhiṭṭhāna (n.), mit der Mönche zu Beginn der Regenzeit formell einen Ort für ihren Aufenthalt während der Regenzeit bestimmen.
16. Vassānaṃ paṭhamaṃ māsaṃ,
Sie informierten Ajātasattu1, dann führten sie während des ersten Monats der Regenzeit an allen Wohnstätten2 Reparaturen aus.
1 Ajātasattu : König von Magadha. Siehe ausführlich zu Mahāvamsa 2, 31
Abb.: Höhle auf dem Geierkopf, Rājagaha
[Bildquelle: Hyougushi. -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/hyougushi/35338622/. -- Creative Commons Lizenz. -- Zugriff am 2006-05-27]
niṭṭhite ahu bhūpatia;
karissāmab mayaṃ iti.
b Burm.: karissāmi
Nachdem die Reparaturen an den Wohnstätten beendigt waren, meldeten sie dem König: "Nun wollen wir die gemeinsame Rezitation (das Konzil) abhalten."
18. Kattabbaṃ kin ti puṭṭhassa,
rājā katthā ti pucchitvā,
vuttaṭhānamhi tehi so.
a Geiger: āhu te
19. Sīghaṃ Vebhāraselassa,
passe kāresi maṇḍapaṃ;
18. - 19.
Der König fragte, was er zu tun habe. Sie wiesen (bzw. nannten) auf einen Versammlungsort hin. Der König fragte: "Wo?". Sie nannten einen Platz und er König ließ eilig einen schönen Pavillon errichten an der Seite des Vebhārafelsen1. Der Pavillon glich einer Ratshalle für Götter.
1 Vebhārafels: einer der fünf Hügel um Rājagaha. Dort befindet sich die Sattapaṇṇi-Höhle
Abb.: Lage des Vebhāra-Berges
[Bildquelle: Schumann, Hans Wolfgang <1928 - >: Auf den Spuren des Buddha Gotama : eine Pilgerfahrt zu den historischen Stätten. -- Olten [u.a.] : Walter, 1992. -- 184 S. : Ill. ; 24 cm. -- ISBN 3530799890. -- S. 95.]
20. Sabbathā maṇḍayitvā taṃ,
attharāpesi tattha so;
Er ließ den Pavillon in jeder Hinsicht schmücken, dann ließ er gemäß der Anzahl der Mönche unbezahlbare Teppiche auslegen.
21. Nissāya dakkhiṇaṃ bhāgaṃ,
āsi tattha mahārahaṃ.
Auf der Südseite, nach Norden gerichtet, war erhöht der hochwürdige Sitz für den (vorsitzenden) Thera wohl bereitet.
22. Tasmiṃ maṇḍapamajjhasmiṃ,
In der Mitte des Pavillons, nach Osten gerichtet, war erhöht der Lehrsitz (d.h. Sitz für den vorrezitierenden Mönch) wohl bereitet, des Vollendeten würdig.
23. Rājārocayia therānaṃ,
kammaṃ nob niṭṭhitaṃ iti;
b Geiger: me
Der König meldete den Theras: "Unsere Aufgabe ist beendet."
23b. te therā theram Ānandam
24. Sve sannipāto Ānanda,
sekhena gamanaṃ tahiṃ;
na yuttan te sadatthe tvaṃ,
appamatto tato bhava.
Die Theras sprachen zum Thera Ānanda, dem Freudenspender: "Ānanda, morgen ist die Versammlung. Es ist nicht angemessen, dass du als Trainierender1 dorthin gehst. Sei deswegen zu deinem Wohl unnachlässig!"
1 Trainierender (sekha):Ariya-puggala m. -- Edle Personen
- sekha m. -- Der Trainierende, d.h. wer einen der folgenden Erlösungszustände verwirklicht hat:
- sotāpatti-magga m. -- Weg des Stromeintrittes
- sotāpatti-phala n. -- Frucht des Stromeintrittes
- sakad-āgāmī-magga m. -- Weg des Einmalwiederkehrers
- sakad-āgāmī-phala n. -- Frucht des Einmalwiederkehrers
- an-āgāmī-magga m. -- Weg des Nichtwiederkehrers
- an-āgāmī-phala n. -- Frucht des Nichtwiederkehrers
- arahatta-magga m. -- Weg der Arahatschaft
Zum Training (sikkhā f.) s. unten
- asekha m. -- Der, welcher nicht mehr trainieren muss, weil er die höchste Erlösung verwirklicht hat, d.h. der, welcher arahatta-phala n. -- Frucht der Arahatschaft erreicht hat
(z.B. Samacittavagga : Aṅguttaranikāya I, 63; Nal I, 60, 16-21; Th 20, 80)Sikkhā f. -- Training
- adhi-sīla-sikkhā f. -- Training in hoher Sittlichkeit: striktes Einhalten der Ordensregeln
- adhi-citta-sikkhā f. -- hohe Geistesschulung durch Ruhigwerdemeditation: Verwirklichung der vier Vertiefungszustände (jhāna n.)
- adhi-paññā-sikkhā f. -- hohe Erkenntnisschulung durch Einsichtsmeditation: Erkenntnis der vier edlen Wahrheiten
(z.B: Samaṇasutta : Aṅguttaranikāya I, 229; Nal I, 212, 3-10; Th 20, 294)
25. Iccevaṃ codito thero,
katvāna vīriyaṃ samaṃ;
So angetrieben hat der Thera (Ānanda) rechte Anstrengung geübt und erreichte die von den Körperhaltungen1 unabhängige Arhantschaft2.
Die vier Körperhaltungen beim Training sind:
Ein Arhant bedarf dieses Trainings nicht mehr.
2 Arhantschaft: siehe oben zu Vers 5-9
26. Vassānaṃ dutiye māse,
dutiye divase pana;
rucire maṇḍape tasmiṃ,
therā sannipatiṃsu te.
Am zweiten Tag des zweiten Monats der Regenzeit haben sich die Theras in diesem strahlendschönen Pavillon versammelt.
Die Arhants ließen für den Thera Ānanda einen entsprechenden Sitz frei und nahmen der Würde entsprechend Platz.
28a. Thero ’rahattapattiṃ so,
ñāpetuṃ tehi nāgamā;
Der Thera kam nicht mit ihnen, um ihnen so mitzuteilen, dass er Arhantschaft erreicht hatte.
28b.kuhiṃ Ānandatthero ti,
vuccamāne tu kehici.
29. Nimmujjitvā pathaviyā,
gantvā jotipathena vā;
nisīdi thero Ānando,
Als aber einige fragten, wo der Thera Ānanda sei, tauchte er aus der Erde auf, ging wie auf einem Lichtpfad und setzte sich auf den für ihn reservierten Sitz.
30. Upālitheraṃa vinaye,
sabbe therā dhurandhare.
a Burm.: Upālithero
Alle Theras machten den Thera Upāli1 verantwortlich für den Vinaya2, für alle übrigen Lehren machten sie den Thera Ānanda verantwortlich.
"Upāli Thera. - One of the most eminent of the Buddha's immediate disciples. He belonged to a barber's family in Kapilavatthu and entered the service of the Sākiyan princes. When Anuruddha and his cousins left the world and sought ordination from the Buddha at Anupiyā Grove, Upāli accompanied them. They gave him all their valuable ornaments, but, on further consideration, he refused to accept them and wished to become a monk with them. The reason given for his refusal is that he knew the Sākyans were hot-headed, and feared that the kinsmen of the princes might suspect him of having murdered the young men for the sake of their belongings.
At the request of the Sākiyan youths, the Buddha ordained Upāli before them all, so that their pride might be humbled.
Upāli's upajjhāya was Kappitaka. When Upāli went to the Buddha for an exercise for meditation, he asked that he might be allowed to dwell in the forest. But the Buddha would not agree, for if Upāli went into the forest he would learn only meditation, while, if he remained amongst men, he would have knowledge both of meditation and of the word of the Dhamma. Upāli accepted the Buddha's advice and, practising insight, in due course won arahantship. The Buddha himself taught Upāli the whole of the Vinaya Pitaka.
In the assembly of the Sangha, the Buddha declared him to be the most proficient of those who were learned in the Vinaya (vinayadharānam). He is often spoken of as having reached the pinnacle of the Vinaya, or as being its chief repository (Vinaye agganikkhitto), and three particular cases - those of Ajjuka, the Bhārukacchaka monk and Kumāra-Kassapa - are frequently mentioned in this connection as instances where Upāli's decisions on Vinaya rules earned the special commendation of the Buddha. In the Rājagaha Council, Upāli took a leading part, deciding all the questions relative to the Vinaya, in the same way as Ānanda decided questions regarding the Dhamma.
In accordance with this tradition, ascribing to Upāli especial authority regarding the rules of the Order, various instances are given of Upāli questioning the Buddha about the Vinaya regulations. Thus we find him consulting the Buddha as to the legality or otherwise of a complete congregation performing, in the absence of an accused monk, an act at which his presence is required. Again, he wishes to know if, in a matter which has caused altercations and schisms among members of the Order, the Sangha declares re-establishment of concord without thorough investigation, could such a declaration be lawful? When a monk intends to take upon himself the conduct of any matter that has to be decided, under what conditions should he do so? What qualities should a monk possess in himself before he takes upon himself to warn others? In what case can there be an interruption of the probationary period of a monk who has been placed on probation? (Vin.ii.33f).
A whole list of questions asked by Upāli and answers given by the Buddha on matters pertaining to the Vinaya rules is found in the chapter called Upāli-Pañcaka in the Parivāra.
It is not possible to determine which of these and other questions were actually asked by Upāli, and which were ascribed to him on account of his traditional reputation.
It is said that even in the Buddha's lifetime monks considered it a great privilege to learn the Vinaya under Upāli. The monks seem to have regarded Upāli as their particular friend, to whom they could go in their difficulties. Thus, when certain monks had been deprived by thieves of their clothes, it is Upāli's protection that they seek.
The canon contains but few records of any discourses connected with Upāli, apart from his questions on the Vinaya. In the Anguttara Nikāya he is mentioned as asking the Buddha for a brief sermon, the Buddha telling him that if there were anything that did not conduce to revulsion and detachment, Upāli could be sure that such things did not form part of the Buddha's teaching. There is a record of another sermon which the Buddha is stated to have preached when Upāli expressed the desire to retire into the solitude of the forest. The Buddha tells him that forest-life is not for the man who has not mastered his mind or attained to tranquillity.
For other sermons see Upāli Sutta and Ubbāhika Sutta.
Three verses are ascribed to Upāli in the Theragāthā, where he admonishes the brethren to seek noble friends of unfaltering character, to learn the monks' code of discipline and to dwell in solitude.
In the time of Padumuttara, Upāli was a very rich brahmin named Sujāta. When the Buddha came to his father's city in order to preach to him the Dhamma, Sujāta saw him, and in the assembly be noticed an ascetic named Sunanda, holding over the Buddha for seven days a canopy of flowers. The Buddha declared that Sunanda would, in the time of Gotama Buddha, become famous as the Elder Punna Mantāní-putta. Sujāta, too, wished to seethe future Buddha Gotama, and having heard Padumuttara praise the monk Pātika as chief of the Vinayadharas, he wished to hear, regarding himself, a similar declaration from Gotama. With this end in view he did many deeds of merit, chief of which was the erection of a monastery named Sobhana, for the Buddha and his monks, at an expense of one hundred thousand.
As a result he was born in heaven for thirty thousand kappas and was one thousand times king of the devas. One thousand times, too, he was cakkavatti.
Two kappas ago there was a Khattiya named Añjasa, and Upāli was born as his son Sunanda. One day he went to the park riding an elephant named Sirika, and met, on the way, the Pacceka Buddha Devala, whom he insulted in various ways. Sunanda was, thereupon, seized with a sensation of great heat in his body, and it was not till he went with a large following to the Pacceka Buddha and asked his pardon that the sensation left him. It is said that if the Buddha had not forgiven him, the whole country would have been destroyed. This insult paid to the Pacceka Buddha was the cause of Upāli having been born as a barber in his last birth.
Buddhaghosa says that while the Buddha was yet alive Upāli drew up certain instructions according to which future Vinayadharas should interpret Vinaya rules, and that, in conjunction with others, he compiled explanatory notes on matters connected with the Vinaya.
In direct pupillary succession to Upāli as head of the Vinayadharas was Dāsaka, whom Upāli had first met at the Valikārāma, where Upāli was staying. Upāli taught him the whole of the Vinaya.
Upāli's death was in the sixth year of Udāyibhadda's reign."
[Quelle: Malalasekera, G. P. <1899 - 1973>: Dictionary of Pāli proper names. -- Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1938. -- London : Pali Text Society, 1974. -- 2 vol. -- 1163, 1370 S. -- ISBN 0860132692. -- s. v. -- Dort Quellennachweise.]
2 Vinaya: Ordenregeln und Ordensrecht
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Vinayamukha : Grundbegriffe der Ordensregeln und des Ordensrechts des Theravāda. -- Teil I. -- Fassung vom 8. Juni 2000. -- (Materialien zu den Grundbegriffen des Buddhismus). -- URL: http://www.payer.de/buddhgrund/vinaya01.htm
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Vinayamukha : Grundbegriffe der Ordensregeln und des Ordensrechts des Theravāda. -- Teil II. -- Fassung vom 8. Juni 2000. -- (Materialien zu den Grundbegriffen des Buddhismus). -- URL: http://www.payer.de/buddhgrund/vinaya02.htm
31. Mahāthero sakattānaṃ,
vinayaṃ pucchituṃ sayaṃ;
sammann' Upālithero ca,
vissajjetuṃ tam eva tu.
Der grosse Thera (Mahākassapa) erklärte sich persönlich bereit, selbst die Fragen nach dem Vinaya zu stellen. Der Thera Upāli aber erklärte sich bereit, sie zu beantworten.
32. Therāsane nisīditvā,
vinayaṃ tam apucchi so;
vissajjesi tameva so.
(Mahākassapa) nahm auf dem Sitz des vorsitzenden Thera Platz und fragte den (Upāli). Dieser nahm auf dem Lehrsitz Platz und antwortete.
33. Vinayaññūnam aggena,
sabbe sajjhāyam akaruṃ,
Alle rezitierten, rechten Verhaltens kundig, den Vinaya in der Weise, wie ihn der Größte aller Vinayakenner (d.h. Upāli) erklärt hatte.
34. Aggaṃ bahussutādīnaṃ,
thero dhammam apucchi so.
Der Thera (Mahākassapa) erklärte sich persönlich dazu bereit und befragte den Größten (d.h. Ānanda) u.a. derer, die die Lehre oft gehört hatten, den Schatzbewahrer des großen Weisen nach der Lehre.
35. Tathā sammanniyattānaṃ,
vissajjesi tam Ānanda-
tthero dhammam asesato.
Der Thera Ānanda erklärte sich persönlich dazu bereit, ging zum Lehrsitz, und legte selbst die Lehre restlos dar.
36. Vedehamuninā tena,
sabbe sajjhāyam akaruṃ,
Alle rezitierten, des Sinnes der Lehre kundig, die Lehre in Weise, wie sie der Weise aus Videha1 (d.h. Ānanda) erklärt hatte.
1 Weise aus Videha (Vedehamuni).
Videha: Adelsrepublik; Hauptstadt: Mithilā (heute: Janakapur, Nepal); Licchavī und Videha bildeten die Vajjī-Föderation.
Abb.: Lage von Mithilā (= Janakpur)
Anders zwei Kommentare: vedeha = veda + iha "eifrig mit/durch Wissen"
Vaṃsatthappakāsinī (S. 149):
Vedehamuninā ti; vedena paññāya īhati pavattatī ti vedeho.
Ebenso Sāratthapakāsinī (Saṃyutta-Kommentar) (II, 132)
Wie die Uebersetzug dagegen Apadāna-Kommentar (I, 106):
Videharaṭṭhe jātā, tassā deviyā putto.
37. Evaṃ sattahi māsehi,
So wurde die Lehrrezitation (das Konzil) in sieben Monaten zum Wohl aller Welten beendet durch die, denen am Wohl aller Welten lag.
samatthaṃ vattane kataṃ.
39. Atīvaa jātapāmojjāa,
a Geiger: Iti saṃjātapāmojjā
38. - 39.
Die Erde, umgeben vom Ozean, erbebte zum Ende des Konzils sechsmal aus übergroßer Freude, dass der Thera Mahākassapa diese Lehre des Vollendeten für die Dauer von 5000 Jahren geeignet gemacht hat.
40. Acchariyāni cāhesuṃ,
loke nekāni nekadhā;
thereh' eva katattā ca,
Und viele vielerlei Wunder geschahen auf der Welt. Weil diese Überlieferung von den Theras gemacht wurde, heißt sie Thera-Tradition.1
1 Theriyā paramparā = Theravāda = die Lehre der Theras
41. Paṭhamaṃ saṃgahaṃ katvā,
te yāvatāyukaṃ ṭhatvā,
therā sabbe pi nibbutā.
a Geiger: katvā lokahitaṃ
Alle Theras, die das erste Konzil abgehalten hatten und der Welt großes Heil bewirkt hatten, sind völlig erlöscht nachdem sie ihre Lebensspanne lang gelebt hatten.
42. Therā pi te matipadīpahatandhakārā,
tenāpi jīvitamadaṃ matimā jaheyyā
Auch diese Theras, die großen Leuchten in der Finsternis der Welt, die durch die Leuchte ihrer Einsicht die Finsternis überwunden hatten, sind durch die grässliche große Schwärze des Sterbens ausgelöscht worden. Deswegen sollte ein Einsichtiger dem Rausch des Lebens entsagen.
(14 Silben: 8.6.; Schema: ta bha ja ja ga ga: uktā Vasantatilakā tabhajā jagau gaḥ)
ˉˉ ˘ ˉ˘˘˘ ˉ ˘˘ ˉ ˘ ˉˉ
ˉˉ ˘ ˉ˘˘˘ ˉ ˘˘ ˉ ˘ ˉˉ
ˉˉ ˘ ˉ˘˘˘ ˉ ˘˘ ˉ ˘ ˉˉ
ˉˉ ˘ ˉ˘˘˘ ˉ ˘˘ ˉ ˘ ˉˉ
Zur Metrik siehe:
Payer, Alois <1944 - >: Einführung in die Exegese von Sanskrittexten : Skript. -- Kap. 8: Die eigentliche Exegese, Teil II: Zu einzelnen Fragestellungen synchronen Verstehens. -- Anhang B: Zur Metrik von Sanskrittexten. -- URL: http://www.payer.de/exegese/exeg08b.htm
Sujanappasādaṃsaṃvegatthāya kate Mahāvaṃse
Paṭhamadhammasaṃgītināma tatiyo paricchedo
1 Satt' eva satasahassāni bhkkhusaṃghā samāgatā
Arahā khīṇāsavā suddhā sabbe guṇaggataṃ gatā
2 Te sabbe vicinitvāna uccinitvā varaṃ varaṃ
Pañcasatānaṃ therānaṃ akaṃsu saṃghasammataṃ.
7 Dhutavādānaṃ aggo so Kassapo jinasāsane,
Bahussutānaṃ Ānando vinaye Upālipaṇḍito.
8 Dibbacakkhumhi Anuruddho Vaṅgīso paṭibhānavā,
Puṇṇo ca dhammakathikānaṃ vicitrakathī Kumārakassapo.
9 Vibhajjanamhi Kaccāno Koṭṭhito paṭisambhidā,
Aññe p' atthi mahātherā agganikkhittakā bahū.
10 Tehi c' aññehi therehi katakiccehi sādhuhi
Pañcasatehi therehi dhammavinayasaṅgaho.
11 Therehi katasaṅgaho theravādo ti vuccati,
Upāliṃ vinayaṃ pucchitvā dhammam Ānadasavhayaṃ.
12 Akaṃsu dhammasaṅgahaṃ vinayañ cāpi bhikkhavo,
Mahākassapathero ca Anuruddho mahāgaṇī.
13 Upālithero satimā Ānando ca bahussuto,
Aññe bahu abhiññatā sāvakā satthuvaṇṇitā
14 Pattapaṭisambhidā dhīrā chaḷabhiññā mahiddhikā,
Samādhijhānam anuciṇṇā saddhamme pāramīgatā.
15 Sabbe pañcasatā therā navaṅgaṃ jinasāsanaṃ,
Uggahetvāna dhāresuṃ buddhaseṭṭhassa santike.
16 Bhagavato sammukhā sutā paṭiggahītā ca sammukhā,
Dhammañ ca vinayañ cāpi kevalaṃ buddhadesitaṃ.
17 Dhammadharā vinayadharā sabbe pi āgatāgamā,
Asaṃhīrā asaṅkuppā satthukappā sadā garū.
18 Aggasantike gahetvā aggadhammā tathāgatā,
Agganikkhittakā therā aggaṃ akaṃsu saṅgahaṃ,
Sabbo pi so theravādo aggavādo ti vuccati.
19 Sattapaṇṇiguhe ramme therā pañcasatā gaṇī,
Nisinnā pavibhajjiṃsu navaṅgaṃ sathusāsanaṃ.
20 Sutta geyyaṃ veyyākaraṇaṃ gāthudānitivuttakaṃ,
Jātakabbhutavedallaṃ navaṅgaṃ sathusāsanaṃ.
21 Pavibhattā imaṃ therā saddhammaṃ avināsasaṃ,
Vaggapaññāsakaṃ nāma saṃyuttaṃ ca nipātakaṃ,
Āgamapiṭakaṃ nāma akaṃsu suttasammataṃ
23 Yāva tiṭṭhanti saddhammā saṅgahaṃ na vinassati,
Tāvatā sāsan' addhānaṃ ciraṃ tiṭṭhati satthuno.
24 Katadhammaṃ ca vinayaṃ saṅgahaṃ sāsanārahaṃ,
asaṅkampi acalaṃ bhūmi daḷhaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ.
25 Yo koci samaṇo vāpi brāhmaṇo ca bahussuto,
Parappavādakusalo vālavedhi samāgato.
26 Na sakkā paṭivattetuṃ Sineru va suppatiṭṭhito,
Devo Māro vā Brahmā ca yekeci paṭhaviṭṭhitā
27 Na passanti aṇumattaṃ kiñci dubbhāsitaṃ padaṃ,
Evaṃ sabbaṅgasampannaṃ dhammavinayasaṅgahaṃ
28 Suvibhattaṃ supaṭicchannaṃ satthu sabbaññutāya ca,
Mahākassapapāmokkhā therā pañcasatā ca te.
29 Kataṃ dhammañ ca vinayasaṅgahaṃ avināsanaṃ,
30 Ñatvā janassa sandehaṃ akaṃsu dhammasaṅgahaṃ,
Anaññavādo sārattho saddhammam anurakkhaṇo.
31 Ṭhiti sāsanaaddhānaṃ theravādo sahetuko,
Yāvatā ariyā atthi sāsane buddhasāvakā,
Sabbepi samanuññanti paṭhamaṃ dhammasaṅgahaṃ.
32 Mūlanidānaṃ paṭhamaṃ ādipubbaṅgamaṃ dhuraṃ,
Therā pañcasatā katā aggā ājāniyā kulan ti
"1. The congregation of Bhikkhus, seven hundred thousand (in number), assembled, holy men who having subdued their passions and having become pure, had all attained the summit of perfection. 2. They all, having made enquiry and determined which were the most worthy, elected by vote of the congregation five hundred Theras. 3. Kassapa was the chief propounder of the Dhutanga precepts according to the doctrine of the Jina; Ānanda was the first of those learned (in the Suttas), wise Upāli was chief in the Vinaya, — 4. Anuruddha in the (supernatural) visions, Vangīsa in promptly comprehending, Punna among the preachers of the Dhamma, Kumārakassapa among the students of various tales, — 5. Kaccāna in establishing distinctions, Kotthita in analytical knowledge. There were, besides, many other great Theras who were original depositaries (of Buddha's doctrine). 6. By these and other saintly Theras who had fulfilled their duties, to the number of five hundred, was the collection of the Dhamma and of the Vinaya made; because it was collected by the Theras, it is called the doctrine of the Theras (theravāda). 7. The Bhikkhus composed the collection of Dhamma and Vinaya by consulting Upāli about the Vinaya, and by asking the (Thera) called Ānanda regarding the Dhamma. 8. Thera Mahākassapa and the great teacher Anuruddha, Thera Upāli of powerful memory, and the learned Ānanda, — 9. as well as many other distinguished disciples, who had been praised by the master, who possessed analytical knowledge, firmness, the six (supernatural) faculties and the great (magical) powers, who had attained the mystic trance proceeding from self-concentration, who had completely mastered the true faith, — 10. all these five hundred Theras bore in their minds the nine-fold doctrine of the Jina, having acquired it from the best of Buddhas. 11. They who had heard and received from Bhagavat himself the whole Dhamma and Vinaya taught by the Buddha, — 12. they who knew the Dhamma, who knew the Vinaya, who all were acquainted with the Āgamas, who were unconquerable, immovable, similar to their master, ever worshipful, — 13. they who had received the perfect doctrine, first (among religions), from the first (among teachers), who were Theras and original depositaries (of the Faith), made this first collection. Hence this whole doctrine of the Theras is also called the first (or primitive) doctrine. 14. Assembled in the beautiful Sattapanna cave, the five hundred Theras, the teachers, arranged the nine-fold doctrine of the Teacher. 15. The nine-fold doctrine of the Teacher (Comprises) Sutta, Geyya, Veyyakārana, Gāthā, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Jātaka, Abbhuta, Vedalla. 16. The Theras who arranged this true imperishable doctrine, according to Vaggas, Paññāsakas, Samyuttas, and Nipātas1), composed the collection of the Āgamas which is known by the name of the Suttas. 17. As long as. the true doctrines remain, as long as the collection does not perish, so long — a long time — will the teaching of the Master last. 18. The immovable, firm, insubvertible earth quaked on the appearance of the Collection of the Vinaya and of the Dhamma, which is worthy of the Faith. 19. Nobody, may a Samana come or a Brahmana of great learning, skilled in disputation and hair-splitting, can subvert it; firm it stands like Sineru. 20. Neither a deity nor Māra nor Brahma nor any earthly beings can find in it even the smallest ill-spoken sentence. 21. Thus the collection of the Dhamma and of the Vinaya is complete in every part, well arranged and well protected by the omniscience of the Teacher. 22. 23. And those five hundred Theras, chief among whom was Mahākassapa, as they knew the doubts of the people, composed the imperishable collection of the Vinaya and of the Dhamma, which is an incarnation of the Faith like the highest Buddha, the collection of the Dhamma. 24. The doctrine of the Theras, which is founded on true reasons, which is free from heresies, full of true meaning, and supports the true faith, will exist as long as the Faith. 25. As long as holy disciples of Buddha's faith exist, all of them will recognize the first Council of the Dhamma. 26. The five hundred pre-eminent Theras, noble by birth (?), laid the first firm, original, fundamental base (of the Faith).
Here ends the Council of Mahākassapa.
1) These are the sections into which the Dīgha-, Majjhima-, Samyuttaka-, and Anguttara-Nikāya respectively are divided."
[Quelle: Dipavamsa : an ancient historical record / ed. and translated by Hermann Oldenberg [1854 - 1920]. -- 1879. -- S. 133 - 135.]
1. [PTS Page 284] atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo bhikkhū āmantesi: ekamidāhaṃ āvuso samayaṃ pāvāya kusināraṃ addhāna maggapaṭipanno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Athakhvāhaṃ āvuso maggā okkamma aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisīdiṃ. Tena kho pana samayena aññataro ājivako kusinārāya mandāravapupphaṃ gahetvā pāvaṃ addhānamaggapaṭipanno hoti. Addasaṃ kho ahaṃ āvuso taṃ ājivakaṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ. Disvāna taṃ ājivakaṃ etadavocaṃ: "apāvuso amhākaṃ satthāraṃ jānāsi"ti? "Āmāvuso jānāmi. Ajja sattāhaparinibbuto samaṇo gotamo. Tato me idaṃ mandāravapupphaṃ gahitanti".
2. Tatrāvuso ye te bhikkhū avītarāgā, appekacce bāhā paggayha kandanti. Chinnapapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti, atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antarahitanti. Ye pana te bhikkhū vītarāgā te satā sampajānā adhivāsenti "aniccā saṃkhārā taṃ kutettha labhā"ti. Athakhvāhaṃ āvuso te bhikkhū etadavocaṃ: " alaṃ āvuso mā socittha. Mā paridevittha. Nanvetaṃ āvuso bhagavatā paṭigacceva akkhātaṃ sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo? Taṃ kutettha āvuso labbhā yantaṃ jātaṃ bhūtaṃ saṅkhataṃ palokadhammaṃ taṃ vata mā palujjiti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatīti".
3. Tena kho panāvuso samayena subhaddo nāma vuḍḍhapabbajito tassaṃ parisāyaṃ nisinno hoti. Atha kho āvuso subhaddo vuḍḍhapabbajito te bhikkhū etadavoca: "alaṃ āvuso. Mā sovittha. Mā paridevittha. Sumuttā mayaṃ tena mahāsamaṇena. [PTS Page 285] upaddutā ca mayaṃ homa 'idaṃ vo kappati, idaṃ vo na kappatī'ti. Idāni pana mayaṃ yaṃ icchissāma taṃ karissāma, yaṃ na icchissāma na taṃ karissāmāti".
Handa mayaṃ āvuso dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyāma pure adhammo dīpati dhammo paṭibāhīyati. Pure avinayo dippati vinayo paṭibāhīyati. Pure adhammavādino balavanto honti. Dhammavādino dubbalā honti. Pure avinayavādino balavanto honti. Vinayavādino dubbalā hontīti.
Tena hi bhante thero bhikkhū uccinatūti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo ekenūnāni pañca arahantasatāni uccini. Bhikkhū āyasmantaṃ mahākassapaṃ etadavocuṃ: ayaṃ bhante āyasmā ānando kiñcāpi sekho abhabbo chandā dosā mohā bhayā agatiṃ gantuṃ. Bahū ca anena bhagavato santike dhammo ca vinayo ca pariyatto. Tena hi bhante thero āyasmantampi ānandaṃ uccinatūti.
4. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantampi ānandaṃ uccini. Atha kho therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ etadahosi: kattha nu kho mayaṃ dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyeyyāmāti. Atha kho therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ etadahosi: rājagahaṃ kho mahāgocaraṃ pahūtasenāsanaṃ. Yannūna mayaṃ rājagahe vassaṃ vasantā dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyeyyāma. Na aññe bhikkhū rājagahe vassaṃ upagaccheyyunti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ saṅgho imāni pañca bhikkhusatāni sammanneyya rājagahe vassaṃ vasantā dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyituṃ. Na aññehi bhikkhūhi rājagahe vassaṃ vasitabbanti. Esā ñatti.
Suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Saṅgho imāni pañcabhikkhusatāni sammannati rajagahe vassaṃ vasantā dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyituṃ. Na aññehi bhikkhūhi rājagahe vassaṃ vasitabbanti. Yassāyasmato khamati imesaṃ pañcannaṃ bhikkhusatānaṃ sammuti rājagahe vassaṃ vasantānaṃ dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyituṃ. Na aññehi bhikkhūhi rājagahe vassaṃ vasitabbanti, so tuṇhassa. Yassa nakkhamati so bhāseyya.
Sammatāni saṅghena imāni pañcabhikkhusatāni rājagahe vassaṃ vasantā dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyituṃ. Na aññehi bhikkhūhi rājagahe vassaṃ vasitabbanti. Khamati saṅghassa. Tasmā tuṇhī. Evametaṃ dhārayāmīti.
5. [PTS Page 286] atha kho therā bhikkhū rājagahaṃ agamaṃsu dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyituṃ. Atha kho therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ etadahosi: bhagavatā kho āvuso khaṇḍaphullapaṭisaṃkharaṇaṃ vaṇṇitaṃ. Handa mayaṃ āvuso paṭhamaṃ māsaṃ khaṇḍaphullaṃ paṭisaṅkharoma. Majjhimaṃ māsaṃ sannipatitvā dhammañca vinayañca saṅgāyissāmāti. Atha kho therā bhikkhū paṭhamaṃ māsaṃ khaṇḍaphullaṃ paṭisaṅkhariṃsu. Atha kho āyasmā ānando sve sannipāto, na kho metaṃ patirūpaṃ yohaṃ sekho samāno sannipātaṃ gaccheyyanti bahudevarattiṃ kāyagatāya satiyā vītināmetvā rattiyā paccūsasamayaṃ nipajjissāmīti kāyaṃ āvajjesi. Appattaṃ ca sīsaṃ bimbohanaṃ, bhūmito ca pādā muttā, etasmiṃ antare anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimucci. Atha kho āyasmā ānando arahā samāno sannipātaṃ agamāsi.
6. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ ahaṃ āyasmantaṃ upāliṃ vinayaṃ puccheyyanti. Āyasmā pi upāli saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ ahaṃ āyasmatā mahākassapena vinayaṃ puṭṭho vissajjeyyanti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ upāliṃ etadavoca: paṭhamaṃ āvuso upāli pārājikaṃ kattha paññattanti. Vesāliyaṃ bhanteti. Kaṃ ārabbhāti. Sudintaṃ kalandaputtaṃ ārabbhāti. Kismiṃ vatthusminti. Methunadhammeti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ upāliṃ paṭhamassa pārājikassa vatthumpi pucchi, nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi, paññattimpi pucchi, anupaññattimpi pucchi, āpattimpi pucchi, anāpattimpi pucchi.
7. Dutiyampanāvuso upāli pārājikaṃ kattha paññattanti. Rājagahe bhanteti. Kaṃ ārabbhāti. Dhaniyaṃ kumbhakāraputtaṃ ārabbhāti. Kasmiṃ vatthusminti. Adinnādāneti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ upāliṃ dutiyassa pārājikassa vatthumpi pucchi, nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi, paññattimpi pucchi. Anupaññattimpi pucchi, āpattimpi pucchi, anāpattimpi pucchi.
Tatiyampanāvuso upāli pārājikaṃ kattha paññattanti. Vesāliyaṃ bhanteti. Kaṃ ārabbhāti. Sambahule bhikkhū ārabbhāti. Kismiṃ vatthusminti. Manussaviggaheti. Atha kho āyasmā mahā kassapo āyasmantaṃ [PTS Page 287] upāliṃ tatiyassa pārājikassa vatthumpi pucchi, nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi, paññattimpi pucchi, anupaññattimpi pucchi, āpattimpi pucchi, anāpattimpi pucchi.
Catutthampanāvuso upāli pārājikaṃ kattha paññattanti. Vesāliyaṃ bhanteti. Kaṃ ārabbhāti. Vaggumudātiriye bhikkhū ārabbhāti. Kismiṃ vatthusminti. Uttarimanussadhammeti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ upāliṃ catutthassa pārājikassa vatthumpi pucchi, nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi, paññattimpi pucchi, anupaññattimpi pucchi, āpattimpi pucchi, anāpattimpi pucchi, eteneva upāyena ubhato vibhaṅge pucchi, puṭṭho puṭṭho āyasmā upāli vissajjesi.
8. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ ahaṃ ayasmantaṃ ānandaṃ dhammaṃ puccheyyanti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me bhante saṅgho. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ ahaṃ āyasmatā mahākassapena dhammaṃ puṭṭho vissajjeyyanti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca: brahmajālaṃ āvuso ānanda kattha bhāsitanti. Antarā ca bhante rājagahaṃ antarā ca nālandaṃ rājāgārake ambalaṭṭhikāyanti. Kaṃ ārabbhāti. Suppiyañca paribbājakaṃ brahmadattañca māṇavanti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ brahmajālassa nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi.
Sāmaññaphalaṃ panāvuso ānanda kattha bhāsitanti. Rājagahe bhante jivakambavaneti. Kena saddhinti. Ajātasattunā vedehi puttena saddhinti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ sāmaññaphalassa nidānampi pucchi, puggalampi pucchi, eteneva upāyena pañcapi nikāye pucchi, puṭṭho puṭṭho āyasmā ānando vissajjesi.
9. Atha kho āyasmā ānando there bhikkhū etadavoca: bhagavā maṃ bhante parinibbānakāle evamāha: ākaṅkhamāno ānanda saṅgho mamaccayena khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhaneyyāti. Pucchi pana tvaṃ āvuso ānanda bhagavantaṃ katamāni pana bhante khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Na kho ahaṃ bhante bhagavantaṃ pucchiṃ, katamāni pana bhante khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhā padānīti.
Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni [PTS Page 288] [\q 288/] ṭhapetvā terasa saṅghādisese ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā terasa saṅghādisese ṭhapetvā dve aniyate ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā terasa saṅghādisese ṭhapetvā dve aniyate ṭhapetvā tiṃsa nissaggiye pācittiye ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā terasa saṅghādisese ṭhapetvā dve aniyate ṭhapetvā tiṃsa nissaggiye pācittiye ṭhapetvā dvenavuti pācittiye ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Ekacce therā evamāhaṃsu: cattāri pārājikāni ṭhapetvā terasa saṅghādisese ṭhapetvā dve aniyate ṭhapetvā tiṃsa nissaggiye pācittiye ṭhapetvā dvenavuti pācittiye ṭhapetvā cattāro pāṭidesanīye ṭhapetvā avasesāni khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti.
10. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo saṅghaṃ ñāpesi: suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Santambhākaṃ sikkhāpadāni gihīgatāni gihīnopi jānanti- idaṃ vo samaṇānaṃ sakyaputtiyānaṃ kappati, idaṃ vo na kappatīti. Sace mayaṃ khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhanissāma bhavissanti vattāro: dhūmakālikaṃ samaṇena gotamena sāvakānaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ. Yāvimesaṃ satthā aṭṭhāsi tāvime sikkhāpadesu sikkhiṃsu. Yato imesaṃ satthā parinibbuto na dānime sikkhāpadesu sikkhantīti. Yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṃ saṅgho apaññattaṃ na paññāpeyya. Paññattaṃ na samucchindeyya. Yathā paññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vatteyya. Esā ñatti.
Suṇātu me āvuso saṅgho. Santamhākaṃ sikkhāpadāni gihīgatāni gihīnopi jānanti idaṃ vo samaṇānaṃ sakyaputtiyānaṃ kappati. Idaṃ vo na kappatīti. Sace mayaṃ khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhanissāma, bhavissanti vattāro: dhūmakālikaṃ samaṇena gotamena sāvakānaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ. Yāvimesaṃ satthā aṭṭhāsi tāvime sikkhāpadesu sikkhiṃsu. Yato imesaṃ satthā parinibbuto na dānime sikkhāpadesu sikkhantīti. Saṅgho apaññattaṃ na paññāpeti. Paññattaṃ na samucchindati. Yathā paññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattati. Yassāyasmato khamati apaññattassa apaññapanā paññattassa asamucchedo, yathā paññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattanā, so tuṇhassa. Yassa nakkhamati so bhāseyya.
Saṅgho apaññattaṃ na paññāpeti paññattaṃ na samucchindati, yathā paññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattati. Khamati saṅghassa. Tasmā tuṇhī. Evametaṃ dhārayāmīti.
11. Atha kho therā bhikkhū āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavocuṃ: idaṃ te āvuso ānanda dukkaṭaṃ yaṃ tvaṃ bhagavantaṃ na pucchikatamāni pana bhante khuddānukhuddakāni [PTS Page 289] sikkhāpadānīti. Desehi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Ahaṃ kho bhante asatiyā bhagavantaṃ na pucchiṃ katamāni pana bhante khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadānīti. Nāhantaṃ dukkaṭaṃ passāmi. Apicāyasmantānaṃ saddhāya desemi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Idampi te āvuso ānanda dukkaṭaṃ yaṃ tvaṃ bhagavato vassikasāṭikaṃ akkamitvā sibbesi. Desehi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Nāhaṃ kho bhante agāravena bhagavato vassikasāṭikaṃ akkamitvā sibbesiṃ. Nāhantaṃ dukkaṭaṃ passāmi. Apicāyasmantānaṃ saddhāya desemi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Idampi te āvuso ānanda dukkaṭaṃ yaṃ tvaṃ mātugāmehi bhagavato sarīraṃ paṭhamaṃ vandāpesi. Tāsaṃ rodantīnaṃ bhagavato sarīraṃ assukena makkhitaṃ. Desehi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Ahaṃ kho bhante māyimā vikāle ahesunti mātugāmehi bhagavato sarīraṃ paṭhamaṃ vandāpesiṃ. Nāhantaṃ dukkaṭaṃ passāmi. Apicāyasmantānaṃ saddhāya desemi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Idampi te āvuso ānanda dukkaṭaṃ yaṃ tvaṃ bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne na bhagavantaṃ yāci-tiṭṭhatu bhagavā kappaṃ. Tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānanti. Desehi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Ahaṃ kho bhante mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto na bhagavantaṃ yāciṃ tiṭṭhatu bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānanti. Nāhantaṃ dukkaṭaṃ passāmi. Apicāyasmantānaṃ saddhāya desemi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Idampi te āvuso ānanda dukkaṭaṃ-yaṃ tvaṃ mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye pabbajjaṃ ussukkaṃ akāsi. Desehi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
Ahaṃ kho bhante ayaṃ mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavato mātucchā āpādikā posikā khirassa dāyikā bhagavantaṃ janettiyā kālakatāya2 thaññaṃ pāyesīti mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye pabbajjaṃ ussukkaṃ akāsiṃ. Nāhantaṃ dukkaṭaṃ passāmi. Apicāyasmantānaṃ saddhāya desemi taṃ dukkaṭanti.
12. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā purāṇo dakkhiṇāgirismiṃ cārikaṃ carati mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Atha kho āyasmā purāṇo therehi bhikkhūhi dhamme ca vinaye ca saṃgīte dakkhiṇāgirismiṃ yathābhirannaṃ viharitvā yena rājagahaṃ yena [PTS Page 290] veḷuvanaṃ kalandakanivāpo yena therā bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā therehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ paṭisammoditvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ purāṇaṃ therā bhikkhū etadavocuṃ: therehi āvuso purāṇa, dhammo ca vinayo ca saṃgīto. Upehi taṃ saṃgītinti. Susaṃgītāvuso therehi dhammo ca vinayo ca. Api ca yatheva mayā bhagavato sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ tathevāhaṃ dhāressāmīti.
13. Atha kho āyasmā ānando there bhikkhū etadavoca: bhagavā maṃ bhante parinibbānakāle evamāha: tenahānanda saṅgho mamaccayena channassa bhikkhuno brahmadaṇḍaṃ āṇāpetuti. Pucchi pana tvaṃ āvuso ānanda bhagavantaṃ katamo ca pana bhante brahmadaṇḍoti. Pucchiṃ kho ahaṃ bhante bhagavantaṃ katamo pana bhante brahmadaṇḍoti. Channo ānanda bhikkhū yaṃ iccheyya taṃ vadeyya. Bhikkhūhi channo bhikkhū neva vattabbo. Na ovaditabbo. Nānusāsitabboti. Tenahāvuso ānanda tvaññeva channassa bhikkhuno brahmadaṇḍaṃ āṇāpehīti.
Kathāhaṃ bhante channassa bhikkhuno brahmadaṇḍaṃ āṇāpemi? Caṇḍo so bhikkhu pharusoti. Tenahāvuso ānanda bahukehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ gacchāhīti. Evaṃ bhanteti kho āyasmā ānando therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭissutvā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ pañcamattehi bhikkhūsatehi nāvāya kosambiṃ ujjavi. Nāvāya paccorohitvā rañño udenassa uyyānassa avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisīdi.
14. Tena kho pana samayena rājā udeno uyyāne paricāreti saddhiṃ orodhena. Assosi kho rañño udenassa orodho amhākaṃ kira ācariyo ayyo ānando uyyānassa avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisinnoti. Atha kho rañño udenassa orodho rājānaṃ udenaṃ etadavoca: amhākaṃ kira deva ācariyo ayyo ānando uyyānassa avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisinno. Icchāma mayaṃ deva ayyaṃ ānandaṃ passitunti. Tena hi tumhe samaṇaṃ ānandaṃ passathāti.
Atha kho rañño udenassa orodho yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho rañño udenassa orodhaṃ āyasmā ānando dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi, samādapesi, samuttejesi, [PTS Page 291] sampahaṃsesi. Atha kho rañño udenassa orodho āyasmatā ānandena dhammiyā kathāya sandassito samādapito samuttejito sampahaṃsito āyasmato ānandassa pañcauttarāsaṅgasatāni pādāsi. Atha kho rañño udenassa orodho āyasmato ānandassa bhāsitaṃ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā yena rājā udeno tenupasaṅkami.
Addasā kho rājā udeno orodhaṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ. Disvāna orodhaṃ etadavoca: api nu tumhe samaṇaṃ ānandaṃ passitthāti. Apassimhā kho mayaṃ deva ayyaṃ ānandanti. Api nu tumhe samaṇassa ānandassa kiñci adatthāti. Adamhā kho mayaṃ deva ayyassa ānandassa pañcauttarāsaṅgasatānīti. Rājā udeno ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti: kathaṃ hi nāma samaṇo ānando tāva bahuṃ cīvaraṃ paṭiggahessati. Dussavaṇijjaṃ vā samaṇo ānando karissati paggāhikasālaṃ vā pasāressatīti.
15. Atha kho rājā udeno yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā ānandena saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇiyaṃ1 vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho rājā udeno āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca: āgamā nu khodha bho ānanda amhākaṃ orodhoti.
"Āgamā kho tedha mahārāja orodhoti".
"Api pana bhoto ānandassa kiñci adāsīti".
"Adāsi kho me mahārāja pañcauttarāsaṅgasatānī"ti.
"Kimpana bhavaṃ ānando tāva bahuṃ cīvaraṃ karissatī"ti.
Ye pana te mahārāja bhikkhū dubbalacīvarā tehi saddhiṃ saṃvihajissāmīti.
Yāni kho pana bho ānanda porāṇakāni dubbalacīvarāni tāni kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tāni mahārāja uttarattharaṇaṃ karissāmāti.
Yāni pana bho ānanda porāṇakāni uttarattharaṇāni tāni kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tāni mahārāja bhisicchaviyo karissāmāti.
Yāni pana4 bho ānanda porāṇakā bhisicchaviyo tā kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tā mahārāja bhummattharaṇaṃ karissāmāti.
Yāni pana bho ānanda porāṇakāni bhummattharaṇāni tāni kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tāni mahārāja pādapuñchaniyo karissāmāti.
Yā pana bho ānanda porāṇakā pādapuñchaniyo tā kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tā mahārāja rajoharaṇaṃ karissāmāti
Yāni pana bho ānanda porāṇakāni rajoharaṇāni tāni kathaṃ karissathāti.
Tāni mahārāja koṭṭetvā cikkhallena madditvā paribhaṇḍaṃ limpissāmāti.
Atha kho rājā udeno sabbevime [PTS Page 292] samaṇā sakyaputtiyā yoniso upanenti. Na kulavaṃ gamentīti āyasmato ānandassa aññānipi pañca dussasatāni pādāsi. Ayaṃ carahi āyasmato ānandassa paṭhamaṃ cīvarabhikkhā uppajji cīvarasahassaṃ.
16. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena ghositārāmo tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho āyasmā channo yena āyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ channaṃ āyasmā ānando etadavoca: saṅghena te āvuso channa brahmadaṇḍo āṇattoti. Katamo pana bhante ānanda brahmadaṇḍoti. .
Tvaṃ āvuso channa bhikkhū yaṃ iccheyyāsi taṃ vadeyyāsi. Bhikkhūhi tvaṃ neva vattabbo na ovaditabbo nānusāsitabboti. Nanvāhaṃ bhante ānanda hato ettāvatā yatohaṃ bhikkhūhi neva vattabbo na ovaditabbo nānusāsitabboti- tattheva mucchito papati.
17. Atha kho āyasmā chanto brahmadaṇḍena aṭṭīyamāno harāyamāno jigucchamāno eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpi pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti tadanuttaraṃ brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ nāparaṃ itthattāyāti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro ca panāyasmā channo arahataṃ ahosi.
Atha kho āyasmā chanto arahattaṃ patto yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca: paṭippassambhehi dāni me bhante ānanda brahmadaṇḍanti. Yadaggena tayā āvuso channa arahattaṃ sacchikataṃ tadaggena te brahmadaṇḍo paṭippassaddhoti.
Imāya kho pana vinayasaṅgitiyā pañca bhikkhusatāni anūnāni anadhikāni ahesuṃ. Tasmā ayaṃ vinayasaṅgīti pañcasatikāti vuccatīti.
ON THE COUNCIL OF RÂGAGAHA.
1. Now the venerable Mahâ Kassapa addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Once I was travelling along the road from Pâvâ to Kusinârâ with a great company of the Bhikkhus, with about five hundred Bhikkhus. And I left the high road and sat myself down at the foot of a certain tree.
'Just at that time a certain naked ascetic (âgîvaka), who had picked up a Mandârava flower in Kusinârâ, was coming along the road towards Pâvâ. And I saw him coming in the distance, and on seeing I said to him:
'"O, friend! surely thou knowest our Master?"
'"Yea, friend, I know him. This day the Samana Gotama has been dead a week. That is how I obtained this Mandârava flower."'
'Then, Sirs, of those of the Bhikkhus who were not yet free from their passions, some stretched out their arms and wept; and some fell headlong on the ground; and some reeled to and fro in anguish at the thought: "Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!"'
'But those of the Bhikkhus who were free from the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief, collected and composed at the thought: "Impermanent are all component things. How is it possible [that they should not be dissolved]?"
'Then I, Sirs, spake thus to the Bhikkhus: "Enough, Sirs! Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed One already declared to us that it is the very nature of all things near and dear unto us that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them? How then, Sirs, can this be possible--that whereas anything whatever born, brought into being and organised, contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution--how then can this be possible that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist!"
'Then at that time, Sirs, one Subhadda, who had gone out from the world in his old age, was seated there in the company of Bhikkhus. And Subhadda, the late-received one, said to the Bhikkhus: "Enough, Sirs! Weep not, neither lament! We are well rid of the great Samana. We used to be annoyed by being told, 'This beseems you, this beseems you not.' But now we shall be able to do whatever we like; and what we do not like, that we shall not have to do."
'Come, Sirs, let us chant together the Dhamma and the Vinaya before what is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside; before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who hold to the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who hold to the Vinaya become weak!'
2. 'Let then the venerable Thera choose out Bhikkhus.'
Then the venerable Mahâ Kassapa chose out five hundred Arahats less one. And the Bhikkhus said to the venerable Mahâ Kassapa: 'Lord, this venerable one, Ânanda, although he have not yet attained [to Nirvâna], yet is he incapable of falling into error through partiality, or malice, or stupidity, or fear, and thoroughly have the Dhamma and the Vinaya been learnt by him from the Blessed One himself. Therefore let our Lord choose the venerable Ânanda. And the venerable Mahâ Kassapa chose also the venerable Ânanda.'
3. Then it occurred to the Thera Bhikkhus: 'In what place shall we now chant over together the Dhamma and the Vinaya?' And it occurred to the Thera Bhikkhus: 'In Râgagaha is alms plentiful, and there is abundance of lodging-places. What, now, if we were to spend the rainy season at Râgagaha, and chant the Dhamma and the Vinaya together there: and if no other Bhikkhus were to go up to Râgagaha for the rainy season ?'
4. Then the venerable Mahâ Kassapa laid the resolution before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha appoint that these five hundred Bhikkhus take up their residence during the rainy season at Râgagaha, to chant over together the Dhamma and the Vinaya, and that no other Bhikkhus go up to Râgagaha for the rainy season. This is the resolution. Let the venerable Samgha hear. The Samgha appoints accordingly. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak. The Samgha has appointed accordingly. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand.'
5. So the Thera Bhikkhus went up to Râgagaha to chant over together the Dhamma and the Vinaya. And the Thera Bhikkhus thought: 'The Blessed One has spoken in praise of the repair of dilapidations. Let us, then, during the first month of the rainy season repair such dilapidations, and during the middle month let us chant over the Dhamma and the Vinaya together.' And during the first month they repaired dilapidation.
6. And the venerable Ânanda--thinking, 'To-morrow is the assembly, now it beseems me not to go into the assembly while I am still only on the way (towards Arahatship)'--spent the whole night with mind alert. And at the close of the night, intending to lie dawn, he inclined his body, but before his head reached the pillow, and while his feet were still far from the ground, in the interval he became free from attachment to the world, and his heart was emancipated from the Âsavas (that is to say, from sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance).
7. And the venerable Mahâ Kassapa laid the resolution before the Samgha: 'If the time seem meet to the Samgha, I will question Upâli concerning the Vinaya.' And the venerable Upâli laid a resolution before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, I, when questioned by the venerable Mahâ Kassapa, will give reply.'
Then the venerable Mahâ Kassapa said to the venerable Upâli: 'Venerable Upâli, where was the first Pârâgika promulgated?'
'In Vesâlî, Sir.'
'Concerning whom was it spoken?'
'Concerning Sudinna, the son of Kalanda.'
'In regard to what matter?'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Upâli as to the matter, as to the occasion, as to the individual concerned, as to the (principal) rule, as to the sub-rule, as to who would be guilty, and as to who would be innocent, of the first Pârâgika.
'Again, venerable Upâli, where was the second Pârâgika promulgated?'
'At Râgagaha, Sir.'
'Concerning whom was it spoken?'
'Dhaniya, the potter's son.'
'In regard to what matter?'
'The taking of that which had not been given.'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Upâli as to the matter, and as to the occasion, and as to the individual concerned, and as to the (principal) rule, and as to the sub-rule, and as to who would be guilty, and as to who would be innocent of the second Pârâgika.
'Again, venerable Upâli, where was the third Pârâgika promulgated?'
'At Vesâlî, Sir.'
'Concerning whom was it spoken?'
'A number of Bhikkhus.'
'In regard to what matter?'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Upâli as to [all the particulars, as before] of the third Pârâgika.
'Again, venerable Upâli, where was the fourth Pârâgika promulgated?'
'At Vesâlî, Sir.'
'Concerning whom was it spoken?'
'The Bhikkhus dwelling on the banks of the Vaggumudâ river.'
'In regard to what matter?'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Upâli as to [all the particulars, as before] of the fourth Pârâgika. And in like manner did he question him through both the Vinayas; and as he was successively asked, so did Upâli make reply.
8. Then the venerable Mahâ Kassapa laid a resolution before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, I would question Ânanda concerning the Dhamma.'
And the venerable Ânanda laid a resolution before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, I, as questioned by the venerable Mahâ Kassapa, will give reply.'
And the venerable Mahâ Kassapa said to the venerable Ânanda: 'Where, venerable Ânanda, was the Brahmagâla spoken?'
'On the way, Sir, between Râgagaha and Nalanda, at the royal rest-house at Ambalatthikâ.'
'Concerning whom was it spoken?'
'Suppiya, the wandering ascetic, and Brahmadatta, the young Brâhman.'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Ânanda as to the occasion of the Brahmagâla, and as to the individuals concerning whom it was spoken.
'And again, venerable Ânanda, where was the Sâmañña-phala spoken?'
'At Râgagaha, Sir; in Gîvaka's Mango Grove.'
'And with whom was it spoken?'
'With Agâtasattu, the son of the Vedehî.'
Thus did the venerable Mahâ Kassapa question the venerable Ânanda as to the occasion of the Sâmañña-phala, and as to the individual concerned. And in like manner did he question him through the five Nikâyas, and as he was successively asked, so did Ânanda make reply.
9. Then the venerable Ânanda spake thus to the Thera Bhikkhus: 'The Blessed One, Sirs, at the time of his passing away, spake thus to me "When I am gone, Ânanda, let the Samgha, if it should so wish, revoke all the lesser and minor precepts ."'
'Did you then, venerable Ânanda, ask the Blessed One which were the lesser and minor precepts?'
Some Theras then said that all the rules save the four Pârâgikas; others that all save those and the thirteen Samghâdisesas; others that all save those and the two Aniyatas; others that all save those and the thirty Nissaggiyas; others that all save those and the ninety-two Pâkittiyas; others that all save those and the four Pâtidesaniyas were lesser and minor precepts.
Then the venerable Mahâ Kassapa laid a resolution before the Samgha: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. There are certain of our precepts which relate to matters in which the laity are concerned. Now the laity know of us that "such and such things are proper for you Samanas who are Sakyaputtiyas, and such and such things are not." If we were to revoke the lesser and minor precepts, it will be said to us: "A set of precepts was laid down for his disciples by the Samana Gotama to endure until the smoke should rise from his funeral pyre . So long as their teacher remained with these men, so long did they train themselves in the precepts. Since their teacher has passed away from them, no longer do they now train themselves in the precepts.'
'If the time seems meet to the Samgha, not ordaining what has not been ordained, and not revoking what has been ordained, let it take upon itself and ever direct itself in the precepts according as they have been laid down. This is the resolution.
'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. [These things being so] the Samgha takes upon itself the precepts according as they have been laid down. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak. The Samgha has taken upon itself the precepts according as they were laid down. Therefore does it keep silence. Thus do I understand.'
10. Now the Thera Bhikkhus said to the venerable Ânanda: 'That was ill done by thee, friend Ânanda, in that thou didst not ask the Blessed One which were the lesser and minor precepts. Confess thy fault.'
'Through forgetfulness was it, Sirs, that I did not ask that of the Blessed One. I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that as a fault .'
'This also, friend Ânanda, was ill done by thee, in that thou steppedst upon the Blessed One's rainy-season garment to sew it. Confess thy fault.'
'It was not, Sirs, through any want of respect to the Blessed One that I did so. I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that as a fault.'
'This also, friend Ânanda, was ill done by thee, in that thou causedst the body of the Blessed One to be saluted by women first , so that by their weeping the body of the Blessed One was defiled by tears. Confess that fault.'
'I did so, Sirs, with the intention that they should not be kept beyond due time. I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that as a fault.'
'This too, friend Ânanda, was ill done by thee, in that even when a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear were given thee by the Blessed One, thou didst not beseech him, saying, "Let the Blessed One remain on for a kalpa! Let the Happy One remain on for a kalpa for the good and happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!" Confess that fault.'
'I was possessed (by the Evil One), friends, when I refrained from so beseeching him. I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that as a fault.'
'This also, friend Ânanda, was ill done by thee, in that thou exertedst thyself to procure admission for women into the Dhamma and Vinaya proclaimed by the Tathâgata 3. Confess that fault.'
'That did I do, friends, thinking of Mahâ Pagâpatî the Gotamî, the sister of the Blessed One's mother; his nurse and comforter, who gave him milk; how she, when she who had borne him was dead, herself suckled him as with mother's milk. I see no fault therein. Nevertheless, out of my faith in you, I confess that as a fault.'
11. Now at that time the venerable Purâna was wandering through the Southern Hills with a great company of Bhikkhus, with five hundred Bhikkhus. And when the Thera Bhikkhus had completed the chanting over together of the Dhamma and the Vinaya, he, having stayed in the Southern Hills as long as he thought fit, went on to Râgagaha to the Veluvana, to the Kalandaka Nivâpa, where the Thera Bhikkhus were, and having greeted the Thera Bhikkhus, he took his seat on one side. When he was so seated, the Thera Bhikkhus said to him:
'The Dhamma and the Vinaya, friend Purâna, have been chanted over together by the Thera Bhikkhus. Do thou, then, submit thyself to and learn the text so rehearsed by them.'
'The Dhamma and the Vinaya, Sirs, have been well sung by the Theras. Nevertheless, even in such manner as it has been heard by me, and received by me from the very mouth of the Blessed One, in that manner will I bear it in my memory.'
12. Now the venerable Ânanda said to the Thera Bhikkhus: 'The Blessed One, Sirs, said to me at the time of his death: "Let then the Samgha, Ânanda, when I am dead, impose the higher penalty on Khanna the Bhikkhu."
'Didst thou then, friend Ânanda, ask the Blessed One what the higher penalty was?'
'I did, Sirs, (and the reply was): 'Let Khanna the Bhikkhu, Ânanda, say whatever he may wish; but the Bhikkhus should neither speak to him, nor exhort him, nor admonish him."'
'Do thou, then, friend Ânanda, let Khanna the Bhikkhu know that the higher penalty has been imposed upon him.'
'How can I, Sirs, do so? Passionate is that Bhikkhu, and rough.'
'Go then, friend Ânanda, in company with a number of other Bhikkhus.'
'Even so, Sirs,' said Ânanda, in assent to the Thera Bhikkhus. And he took with him a number of Bhikkhus, to wit, five hundred Bhikkhus, and embarked on a boat going up stream, and disembarked at Kosambî, and not far from king Udena's park he took his seat at the foot of a certain tree.
13. Now at that time king Udena was enjoying himself in the park together with the ladies of his palace. And the ladies heard that their teacher, the venerable Ânanda, was seated at the foot of a tree not far from the park. And they said to king Udena:
'They say that our teacher, the venerable Ânanda, is seated at the foot of a tree not far from the park. We desire, Lord, to go and see him.'
'Go, then, and see the Samana Ânanda.' And they went and saluted the venerable Ânanda, and took their seats on one side. And he. instructed, and aroused, and incited, and gladdened them with religious discourse. And when that discourse was concluded, they presented the venerable Ânanda with five hundred robes, and exalted and thanked him for his discourse, and arose from their seats, and saluted him, and keeping him on their right sides as they passed him, they departed thence.
14. And king Udena saw the ladies coming from the distance. And on seeing them he said to them:
'Well, did you succeed in seeing the Samana Ânanda?'
'We saw him, Sire.'
'Did you present the Samana Ânanda with any gift?'
'We gave, Sire, to the venerable Ânanda five hundred robes.'
Then king Udena was indignant and annoyed, and became angry, saying:
'How can the Samana Ânanda accept so many robes? Would he set up as a hawker in cloths, or would he open a shop?'
And king Udena went to where the venerable Ânanda was, and after exchanging with him the greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, sat down by his side. And when he was so seated, he said to him:
'Did our ladies come hither, Ânanda?'
'Yes, great king.'
'Did they give anything to your reverence?'
'They gave me, great king, five hundred robes.'
'And what does your reverence intend to do with those five hundred robes?'
I shall divide them, great king, among those of the Bhikkhus whose robes are worn out.'
'And what do you intend, Ânanda, to do with the worn-out robes?'
'Of those, great king, we shall make counterpanes.'
'And what do you intend to do, Ânanda, with the old counterpanes?'
'Of those, great king, we shall make bolster cases.'
'And what do you intend to do, Ânanda, with the old bolster cases?'
'Of those, great king, we shall make carpets.'
'And what do you intend to do, Ânanda, with the old carpets?'
'Of those, great king, we shall make towels for the washing of the feet.'
'And what do you intend to do, Ânanda, with the old towels?'
'Of those, great king, we shall make dusters.'
'And what do you intend to do, Ânanda, with the old dusters?'
'Those, great king, we shall tear in shreds, and beat up with mud, and use them for making flooring of clay.'
Then king Udena thought: 'These Sakyaputtiya Samanas make general use of everything in a conscientious way, and take nothing as one man's peculiar property .' And he presented other five hundred pieces of cloth to the venerable Ânanda.
15. But Ânanda went on to the Ghosita Ârâma, and sat down then on the seat spread out for him. And the venerable Khanna went to the place where he was and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And when he was so seated, Ânanda said to him
'The Samgha, friend Khanna, has imposed upon you the higher penalty.'
'What then, friend Ânanda, is the higher penalty?'
'You, friend Khanna, may say to the Bhikkhus whatever you wish; but the Bhikkhus are neither to speak to you, nor exhort you, nor admonish you.'
'Shall I not be even a slain man, friend Ânanda, so long as I am neither spoken to, nor exhorted, nor admonished by the Bhikkhus?' said Khanna, and he fainted and fell.
Then the venerable Khanna, pained, grieved, and seized with, remorse through the higher penalty, remained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved. And ere long he attained to that supreme goal of the higher life for the sake of which men even of good family go out from all and every household gain and comfort to become houseless wanderers--yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and while yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and continue to realise, and to see face to face! And he became conscious that rebirth was at an end for him, that the higher life had been fulfilled, that all that should be done had been accomplished, and that, after this present life, there would be no beyond!
So the venerable Khanna became yet another among the Arahats. And after he had attained to Arahatship, the venerable Khanna went to the venerable Ânanda, and said:
'Remove from me now, friend Ânanda, the higher penalty.'
'From the moment, friend Khanna, that you had realised Arahatship, from that moment was the higher penalty removed from you.'
16. Now whereas five hundred Bhikkhus, without one failing, without one more, took part in this rehearsal of the Vinaya, therefore is that rehearsal of the Vinaya called 'that of the five hundred.'
Here ends the Eleventh Khandhaka, on the Rehearsal by the Five Hundred."
[Übersetzung: Vinaya texts / translated from the Pāli by T.W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg. -- Part III: The Kullavagga, IV-XII. -- Oxford, 1885. -- (Sacred Books of the East ; Vol. 20). -- S. 370 - 385]
M = Mahāvaṃsa; EM = Extended Mahāvaṃsa; MT = Mahāvaṃsa Ṭīkā. M
III., 1-42.—Account of the First Council, held by Mahā-Kassapa, under the patronage of Ajātasattu.
III., 1-42.—Same as in M.
MT. adds nothing to the account in M. except to say that the Council was also called Pañcasatikā, because it was held by 500 Elders, and that Ak. called it Vibhajjavāda (151.20 f). EM. does not mention these names. [Quelle: G. P. Malalasekera (1899 - 1973). -- In: Extended Mahāvaṃsa / ed. by G. P. Malalasekera. -- Colombo : Times of Ceylon, 1934. -- LVIII, 380 S. -- (Aluvihāra Series ; III). -- Reprint: Oxford : Pali Text Society, 1988. -- ISBN 0-86013-285-4. -- S. XVI.]
"The following account of the councils of Rājagṛha and Vaiśālī, and of the spread of Buddhism in Kashmir, is taken from the eleventh volume of the Dulva, and is the only canonical version of these events to be met with in Tibetan works. Before giving an analysis of these passages, I must call attention to the difficulties which the text presents. These difficulties are so real that a learned Tibetan lama from the monastery of Snar-Thang, near Tachilunpo [བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་], has said of this volume that " this translation is not felicitous ; it is full of obsolete expressions, is badly written, and in the latter part of the volume the correctors' minds appear tired and their other faculties worn out; and all this is a source of much incertitude." The translators of this volume were the well-known Indian pundits Vidyākaraprabha and Dharmaśrīprabha.
Mahākāśyapa, whom wo have seen (p. 144) acknowledged as the head of the order on account of his wisdom and virtues, heard, after the death of the Buddha, people remark that whereas 80,000 bhikṣus had died at the same time as Śāriputra [舍利子], 70,000 on Maudgalyāyana's [摩訶目犍連] death, and 18,000 more when the Buddha had died, the words of the Blessed One had vanished like smoke; and that as all the mighty bhikṣus had utterly passed away, the Sūtrānta, the Vinaya, and the Mātrikā, of the Blessed One were no longer taught. When he heard people thus censuring, blaming, and slandering (f. 652), he told what he had heard to the bhikṣus, and concluded by saying that they must assemble in that place (i.e., at Kusinārā). The bhikṣus assented to his proposition. "Who shall convok the clergy ?" " Let it be the venerable Pūrṇa." Then the
venerable Mahākāśyapa said to the venerable Pūrṇa, " Pūrṇa, strike the gaṇṭhā and assemble the bhikṣus;" and Pūrṇa consented; and after having entered into the state of abstraction of the fourth dhyāna of perfect freedom, and having acquired the sight of knowledge, he arose and
commenced striking the gaṇṭa. Then from all parts assembled the congregation of bhikṣus (among whom were) five hundred arhats. When these were assembled Mahākāśyapa said to them, " Venerable sirs, what member of the congregation of bhikṣus has not come?" and they
discovered that the venerable Gavāmpati was not there. Now at that time Gavāmpati was in the hermitage of śiriaka tree (shing shi-ri-sha-kai gdzal-med khang-stong). Then Kāśyāpa said to Pūrṇa, "Go, Pūrṇa" (f. 654), "to where Gavāmpati is, and tell him, 'Kāśyāpa and all the other members of the saṅgha greet you, and request that you will come to them in all haste for business of the order.'" The venerable Pūrṇa consented; so he left Kusinārā and transported himself to the hermitage of the śiriśaka tree, and having bowed down at Gavāmpati's feet, he
delivered Kāśyāpa's message. Then Gavāmpati considered within himself what could be the matter, and when he discovered that "the lamp of wisdom had been blown out by the wind of impermanency," that the Blessed One had passed away (f. 655), he told Pūrṇa that he could
not go, for his end was nigh; so he gave him his alms-bowl and his three robes, and told him to present them to the saṅgha; then, by means of his magical powers, he was consumed and passed into the state of parinirvāṇa (f. 656). Then Pūrṇa, having honoured his remains, returned to the twin sala tree grove, where the five hundred bhikṣus and Kāśyāpa were, and presenting them with the bowl and robes, he told them what had occurred.
Kāśyāpa told the bhikṣus that he thought it would bo advisable to assemble in Magadha, where the Blessed One had acquired omniscience, and he consulted the bhikṣus as to the proper spot to choose. One of their number proposed to go to the Bodhi tree (and there hold the synod), but Kāśyāpa said that as Ajātaśatru was a very firm believer, he would provide the saṅgha with all the necessaries, and that they must consequently go to Rājagṛha. The bhikṣus consented, and then asked if Ānanda, who had been the Master's attendant, and to whom several of the sūtras had been addressed, would not be admitted into the synod. Kāśyāpa said that if they made an exception in Ānanda's favour, the other bhikṣus who had had something to do with the Blessed One would be angered; however, if they were willing that he (Ānanda) should be appointed to supply the saṅgha with water when they required it, he would bo admitted, otherwise he would have to be excluded. The bhikṣus having shown their willingness, Kāśyāpa asked Ānanda, "Venerable Ānanda, if you are sent to get water for the assembly ?"—"I will go." Then Kāśyāpa having repeated the question, said, " Hear me, venerable sirs. This venerable Ānanda, the personal attendant of the Blessed One, who has been in close attendance on the Blessed One, and to whom he spoke several of his sūtras, is to be appointed to bring water to the assembly. Now I ask you if you approve of the appointment of the venerable Ānanda. If it appears proper, remain silent. It is approved. Now hear me. The venerable Ānanda, the attendant of the Blessed One, who stayed near his person, and to whom the Blessed One spoke several of his sermons, has for these reasons been appointed to supply the saṅgha with water. If the saṅgha requires water, the venerable Ānanda, having been appointed to the office of supplying it with water, must supply it with water. If the saṅgha approves (these arrangements), let all remain silent. The assembly is silent, therefore the venerable Ānanda is appointed water-provider of the assembly (dqe-hdun)."
Then Kāśyāpa said to Ānanda, "Go along to Rājagṛha with the congregation of bhikṣus by the way which suits you best; I am going directly there (through the air)." So Kāśyāpa went to Rājagṛha, and when first Ajātaśatru, king of Magadha, saw him, the recollection of the Buddha made him fall senseless to the ground (f. 658). When Kāśyāpa had told him of the intention of the five hundred bhikṣus well versed in the Sūtrānta, the Vinaya, and the Abhidharma, he gave orders to supply them with everything which they might require, and he had the city decorated as if for a feast.
When the elders (with Ānanda) arrived, they asked Kāśyāpa where they could reside (and hold the council). Neither the Kalantakanivāsa bamboo grove nor the Vulture's Peak could answer their purpose, but the Nyagrodha cave was sufficiently secluded if it had bedding in it (or seats, mal-stan). So when the king heard that this place suited them, he had it provided with beds (f. 659).
As soon as the bhikṣus had assembled, Kāśyāpa requested Aniruddha to examine if any one out of the five hundred was still subject to passions, anger, ignorance, desire, or attachment.
Aniruddha discovered that there was only one out of their number in this case, and that it was Ānanda; so Kāśyāpa excluded him from the assembly (f. 661).
"Bear with me, venerable Kāśyāpa," said Ānanda; " I have neither sinned against morality, the doctrine, nor against good behaviour, neither have I done aught unseemly or detrimental to the congregation. Be forbearing then, O Kāśyāpa!"
"Ānanda, thou wast the Blessed One's close attendant, what wonder then that thou didst not commit any of the sins thou hast mentioned; but if thou sayest that thou hast done no wrong to the congregation (f. 66 ib), how comes it that when the Blessed One said that women were as dangerous as snakes, and that it would be wrong to admit them into the order, thou didst ask that they might be allowed to enter it ?"
"Bear with me a while, Kāśyāpa," replied Ānanda. "I thought of all that Mahāprajāpatī Gautamī had endured, and how it was she who had nursed the Blessed One when his mother died. I only asked that women who were (my) relatives and friends might enter the order. 'Twas surely no wonder, no subject of shame !"
Then Kāśyāpa said, "When the Buddha (shortly before his death) explained to thee how it was possible for a buddha to prolong at his will his life, why didst thou not ask him to deign to remain in the world during the rest of the present age for the weal of mankind ?"
"Kāśyāpa," Ānanda replied, "'twas no wonder, nor is there aught to be ashamed of, if I did not do so, for I was then possessed by the Evil one."
"Moreover, thou didst commit another sin," rejoined Kāśyāpa, "for thou didst rest thy feet for a whole day on the gojden-coloured raiment of the Blessed One."
"I did so," replied Ānanda, " because at the time there was no friendly bhikṣu anywhere about" (f. 663).
"There is yet another sin which thou hast committed, for when the Blessed One was nigh unto death between the twin sala trees, and he did ask thee for some clear water, (how came it that thou didst not get it for him?")
"Kāśyāpa, I hove nought to reproach myself therein; nor was it surprising, for five hundred waggons had just crossed the Kakusthāna river, and had made it muddy."
"But why didst thou not hold up thy bowl towards heaven, for the devas would have filled it? Moreover, when the Blessed One, having ordained that at the half-monthly recitations of the Prātimokṣa Sūtra, when the portion appertaining to the minor moral precepts (ts'ul-khrims phra mo) and the minutiae (phran-ts'egs) was reached, the bhikṣusaṅgha might stop the recitation or go on with it, why didst thou not ask the Blessed One what was to be understood by the terms ' minor moral precepts and minutiae' ? Now (as a consequence of thy negligence), I say that all which is not in the four pārājika, the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, the two aniyata, the thirty nirsaggiya pācittiya, the ninety pācittiya, the four pratideśanīya, and all the many sekhiya dharmas are minor moral precepts and minutiae. Others again say that all which is not in the four pārājika, the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, the two aniyata, the thirty nirsaggiya pācittiya, the ninety pācittiya, and the four pratideśanīya are minor moral precepts and minutiae (f. 664). But others say that all which is not in the four pārājika, the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, the two aniyata, the thirty nirsaggiya pācittiya, the ninety pācittiya, are minor moral precepts and minutiae. Again, others say that, with the exception of the four pārājika, the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, the two aniyata, and the thirty nirsaggiya pācittiya, all are minor moral precepts and minutiae Others say that, with the exception of the four pārāajika, the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, and the two aniyata, all are minor moral precepts and minutiae. Now if a trthika should discover that some bhikṣus adhere to the four pārājika, while others keep to the thirteen saṅghādiśeṣa, (he would say), ' The doctrine of the Śramaṇa Gautama has vanished like smoke; while the (Śramaṇa Gautama was yet alive, his disciples strictly kept his ordinances, but now they allow themselves all the indulgences they see fit. They do what they want to do, and do not do what they do not want to do.' Therefore, in not questioning the Blessed One for the sake of future generations, thou didst wrong."
Ānanda replied, " When the Blessed One spoke these words, I was overcome with grief (at the prospect) of losing the Tathāgata."
"There again thou wert in the wrong; for if the attendant of the Tathāgata had (borne in mind) that all created things are of their nature impermanent, he would not have felt sorrow. Moreover, why didst thou show to men and women of low habits the Tathāgata's hidden privy parts ?"
" Venerable Kāśyāpa," replied Ānanda, "'twas no wonder nor source of shame to me, for I thought that women, being naturally sensual, if they but saw the privy parts of the Blessed One, would they not cease being so ?" (f. 665).
oreover, thou didst show to corrupt women the golden body of the Blessed One, which was then sullied by their tears." *
"I thought," replied Ānanda, "that if they then but saw the Blessed One, many of them would conceive a longing to become like him."
"Ānanda," said Kāśyāpa, "thou art still under the rule of passions; none may enter here who have not put away all passions; so depart thence; thou canst not be among pure-speaking men."
Great was Ānanda's grief, but he called to mind what the Blessed One had said to him shortly before his death, "Ānanda," he had said, "sorrow not, neither be distressed nor afflicted. Thou must turn (gtod) to the bhikṣu Mahākāśyapa (as to the head of the order). Be patient and do as ho shall tell thee. Weep not, Ānanda; thou shalt magnify the law of virtue; thou shalt not bring it low."
Then Aniruddha said to Ānanda, "Go, Ānanda, and destroy evary particle of the passions, become an arhat, and then, but only then, thou mayest enter the synod."
Ānanda thought of his Master who was dead; his eyes filled with tears, and he was sorrowful; but he departed for the city of Vṛji (sic—Vaiśālī ?), and arranged himself as was the rule during summer (f. 666b). Now Ānanda's attendant at that time was the venerable Vṛjiputra (or an āyuṣmat of Vṛjian descent), and he expounded the law to the fourfold assembly while Ānanda diligently applied himself (to cast off all sin). But when Vṛjiputra looked, by means of the mental abstraction of samādhi; he found out that Ānanda was not yet freed from all passions, so he went to him and said—
"Gautama, be thou not heedless;
Keep near a tree in the dark, and on nirvāṇa
Fix thy mind; transport thyself into dhyāna,
And ere long thou shalt find the abode of peace."
When Ānanda heard the advice of the venerable Vrijiputra, day was waning; then he went and seated himself (near a tree) and fixed his mind on the five obscurations (i.e., sin), and in the first watch of the night he had thoroughly freed his mind of them. In the middle watch, after having washed his feet outside the vihār, he entered it and laid himself down on his right side, and just as he was putting one foot on the other, lo! he acquired the notion of the visible, of memory, of self-consciousness (shes-bdzin-dang-ldan pai hdu-shrs). As he was putting his head on his pillow, his mind became detached and freed from all āśravas (f. 667). Then Ānanda in the enjoyment of bliss and peace was free, and having become an arhat, he went to Rājagṛha and entered the Nyagrodha (Satta-pani) cave, where Kāśyāpa and the five hundred arhats were compiling (or about to compile) the dharma.
Kāśyāpa said to the bhikṣus, "Sirs, whereas hereafter bhikṣus may be oblivious and ignorant (or weak, lus nyam tchung-bas), and not able to understand the Sūtrānta, the Vinaya, and the Abhidharma, because there are no gāthās of the sūtras, therefore in the forenoon the gāthās of the sūtras will be recited, and in the afternoon the Sūtrānta, the Vinaya, and the Abhidharma will be taken into consideration (discussed or recited)." Then the bhikṣus asked Kāśyāpa which of the Sūtrānta, the Vinaya, or the Abhidharma would be collated first, and Kāśyāpa decided that the Sūtrānta should first receive their attention.
Then the five hundred arhats requested Mahākāśyāpa to preside over the assembly, and he therefore sat down in the lion's seat (presidential chair or pulpit). Then he asked the assembly if they would allow Ānanda to commence with the compilation of the Sūtrānta of the Tathāgata. They consented by remaining silent (f. 668b), and then the five hundred arhats spread their cloaks over the pulpit.
Ānanda, after having circumambulated the pulpit, keeping it to his right side, bowed down to the elders and sat down in the pulpit. Then he thought, " If I have understood tho whole of the Sūtrānta as spoken by the Blessed One, there is the sūtrānta spoken by the Blessed One in the abode of the nāgas, that which he spoke in the abode of the gods, and that which he spoke to (before) me. I will explain (recite) each one of them as they took place (i.e., chronologically), as I heard and understood them."
Then Kāśyāpa said to Ānanda, " Where did the Master, desiring the good of the world and having conquered (the Evil one), explain the chief dogmas ? Āyuṣmat, recite (gsungs) the sūtrānta (which he then spoke)." Then, having collected himself, Ānanda recited in a loud voice and with clasped hands the sermon (sūtrānta) of the Establishment of the Kingdom of Righteousness, or Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra (f. 669).
When he had finished, Ajñāta Kaundinya said to Mahākāśyāpa, "Venerable Mahākāśyāpa, I heard this sermon; it was spoken for my benefit. It dried my blood and the ocean of my tears. I left behind the mountain of bones; it closed the door of perdition, and opened (for me) the door of heaven and of freedom. When that precious jewel of a sūtra was spoken, I and 80,000 devas acquired the clear eye of truth, and became free from sin (dri-ma). Now that I hear that sermon of long ago, (I see) that there is nothing which is not transitory!" and he fell senseless to the ground. Great also was the agitation of Ānanda and of all those present as they thought of their dead Lord, and that even he had not escaped the universal law of decay.
Then Kāśyāpa asked Ānanda which was the second sūtra. " It was also spoken at Benares for the sake of the five bhikṣus", . . (f. 671). When Ānanda had finished reciting the second sūtra, Ajñāta Kaundinya said that it had made an arhat of him, and had converted his four companions, &c, &c, and again he fell senseless to the ground, &c. (f. 671b); and when Ānanda had finished reciting each sūtra, Kāśyāpa and the assembly cried aloud, " This, then, is the dharma; this is the vinaya (rule) !"
In this way Ānanda recited all the sūtrānta which the Blessed One had spoken, and he mentioned in which villages, towns, countries, and kingdoms they had been uttered; and when it was a sūtra concerning a skandha, he put it in a compilation relating to the skandhas; when it related to an āyatana, he compiled it with the six āyatanas. All that had been explained by the śravakas he compiled in the " explanations by the śravakas." All the explanations (bshad) of the Buddha he gathered together in the " explanations of the Buddha." All which related to acquiring memory, abstraction, to real change, to the bases of supernatural power (iddhipada), to the five faculties, to the branches of the bodhi, the branches of the way, ho collected in the "branches of the way." All sūtras which had been rightly spoken he collected in the "rightly spoken sutras." Those which had gāthās with them he collected in the " well-named sutras." When it was a long sūtra he placed it in the Dīrghāgama. The medium length sutras he placed in the Majjhimāgama, and those which were of one, two—ten words (f. 674) formed the Ekottarāgama.
(F. 674.) When he had finished, Kāśyāpa asked him, "Venerable Ānanda, is your exposition (lung) at an end?"
"Venerable Kāśyāpa, that is all;" and with that he descended from the pulpit.
Then Kāśyāpa said, " Venerable sirs, the whole of the Sūtrānta of the Blessed One has been compiled, we will now pass to the Vinaya."
Now at that time there was the venerable Upāli, a wise man, and one conversant with the origin of the rules and their history; so Kāśyāpa ascended the pulpit and proposed to the assembly that Upāli should compile the Vinaya section. When the assembly had consented, . Kāśyāpa said to Upāli, " Venerable Upāli, if you (recite the vinaya), will you repeat every particle of the Tathāgata's vinaya?" "I will," he replied.
When Upāli had taken his place in the pulpit, Kāśyāpa asked him to narrate where and for what reason the first ordinance had been laid down by the Blessed One. "It was at Benares," Upāli replied; " it was on account of the five bhikṣus, and he ordained that cloaks (shams-thabs) should be circular (zlum-por)" (f. 674b).
Kāśyāpa then asked him where and for what reason the second ordinance had been made. " It was at Benares," Upāli replied; " it was on account of the five bhikṣus, and he ordained that (bhikṣus) should wear circular saṅghāti (tchos-gos). . . . The third rule was promulgated in the village of Kalandaka, on account of the man from Kalandaka called Sudatta (Bzang-sbyin)," &c, &c. (f. 675); and in this way he narrated each of the ordinances laid down by the Buddha, and the 499 arhats listened attentively ; and as he finished with each rule they said, " This is the teaching of the Master; this is the law; this is the rule, &c, &c.; these are the pārājika, these the saṅghādiśeṣa, these the two aniyata, the thirty nirsaggīya pācittiya, the ninety pācittiya dharma, the four pratideśanīya, the many sekhīya dharma, the seven adhikaraṇa samatha dharma. These (things) are to be put away, these to be conceded. Having entered the order, this is the way to be ordained (to receive the upasampadā ordination). This is the way to ask, and the (proper) act to perform. . . . Such and such persons may enter the order, such others may not enter it. This is the way to confess (one's sins) (gso-sbyong). This is the way to enter seclusion (for the was season). These are the habits, these the lesser moral prescriptions (phra-mo ni hdi). This tue index (gleng-gdzi). This the way to worship (mos-pa)."
Then Mahākāśyāpa thought, " For the sake of those men who will hereafter wish for wisdom and who will follow whatever letters there be, for the sake of those who will delight in the essence of the doctrine (lit. the profound signification), why, I myself will expound the Mātṛkā, to preserve the sense of the Sūtrānta and Vinaya as it was spoken." So he mounted the pulpit and said to the bhikṣus, "Venerable sirs, in what does the Mātṛkā consist ?"
"The Mātṛkā (they replied) is that which makes perfectly lucid the distinguishing points of that which ought to be known. Thus it comprises (explanations of) the four smṛtyupasthāna, the four right renunciations, the four iddhipada, the five faculties, the five forces, the seven branches of bodhi, the holy eightfold way, the four kinds of analytical knowledge, the four fruits (rewards) of the virtuous man (śramaṇa), the four words of the dharma (tchos-kyi ts'ig-bdzi), absence of kleśa, the knowledge of what is desirable, perfection, the very void of very void (stong-pa-nyid stong-pa-nyid), the uncharacteristic of the uncharacteristic (mts'an-ma-mcd-pa nyid mts'an-parmed-pa), the samādhi by means of mixing (? hdres-pa hsgo-nas-pai bsam-gtan), the emancipation of perfect understanding, subjective knowledge, the abode of peace (i.e., nirvāṇa), supernatural sight, the correct way to compile and put together all the dharma, this is in what consists the Mātṛkā' (i.e., the Abhidharma, or metaphysics). . . ."
When Kāśyāpa had finished compiling the metaphysical parts of the doctrine, then the yakṣas above the earth cried out, " Bravo! the venerable Mahākaśyapa and the five hundred other arhats have compiled the Three Baskets (Tripiṭaka) of the Tathāgata; the devas will swell in number, and the asuras will diminish! . . ."
When the work of the council was over, Kāśyāpa thought that as he had done all that was necessary for the preservation of the doctrine to future generations, his time had come to pass away; so he went to Ānanda and said to him, "Ānanda, the Blessed One committed to my care the keeping of the doctrine, and passed away. Now, when I shall have passed away, thou shalt take care of the doctrine (i.e., be patriarch). Moreover, there shall be born in Rājagṛha a son of a merchant, who, from the fact that he will be covered with a linen garment, will be called Śānāvasika (Sha-nai gos-chan). Returning from a sea-voyage, he will entertain the Buddhist saṅgha for five years, (after which) he will enter the order, and thou shalt confide the doctrine to him " (f. C78).
Then Mahākāśyapa went and worshipped the four great caityas and the eight caityas of the relics, after which lie went to the realm of the nāgas and revered the eye-tooth of the Buddha, and also to the Trayastriṃśat devas' heaven, where was another tooth of the Buddha (see p. 147). Vanishing from the summit of Sumeru (where is the Trayastriṃśats abode), he came to Rājagṛha, and decided to tell King Ajātaśatru that he was about to die. He went to the king's palace, and said to the doorkeeper, " Go and tell King Ajātaśatru that Kāśyāpa is standing at his gate, and would like to see him." " The king is asleep," answered the porter. Kāśyāpa insisted that he should go and tell him ; but the porter replied, " Venerable sir, the king is violent; (if I awaken him), he would have me put to death." " Tell him, then, when he awakens, that Kāśyāpa has passed away." Kāśyāpa then climbed the southern peak of Kukuṭupada (llco-phyogs-kyi-ri bya-gag-rkang) mountain, and having arranged a grass mat in the centre of the three peaks, he went through the marvellous manifestations customary on such occasions, and entered parinirvāṇa (f. 680)."
[Quelle: The Life of the Buddha and the early history of his order : derived from Tibetan works in the Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur followed by notices on the early history of Tibet and Khoten / translated by W. [William] Woodville Rockhill <1854 - 1914>. -- London : K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1907. -- XII, 273 S. ; 22 cm.. -- S. 148 - 162.]
Abb.: William Woodville Rockhill <1854 - 1914>
[Bildquelle: http://moscow.usembassy.gov/links/ambassadors.php. -- Zugriff am 2006-06-01]
"Rockhill, William Woodville (1854-1914) of Washington, D.C. Born in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa., April 1, 1854. U.S. Minister to Greece, 1897-99; U.S. Minister to Romania, 1897; U.S. Minister to Serbia, 1897; U.S. Minister to China, 1905; U.S. Ambassador to Russia, 1909-11; U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, 1911-13. Died in Honolulu, Island of Oahu, Honolulu County, Hawaii, 1914. Interment at East Cemetery, Litchfield, Conn." "Rockhill, William Woodville, amerikan. Diplomat und Reisender, geb. 1854 in Philadelphia, kam 1884 als Gesandtschaftssekretär der Vereinigten Staaten nach Peking, war 1886-87 diplomatischer Geschäftsträger in Korea, bekleidete seit 1893 verschiedene Posten im Auswärtigen Amt zu Washington, war 1897-99 als Gesandter in Griechenland, Rumänien und Serbien tätig. ging Anfang 1901 wieder nach Peking und unterzeichnete dort als bevollmächtigter Gesandter der Union das Friedensprotokoll der Großmächte vom 7. Sept. 1901. Von 1899-1905 war er auch Direktor des internationalen Bureaus der amerikanischen Republiken in Washington und ist seitdem wieder Gesandter in Peking. Von dort aus unternahm ec schon 1888 eine Reise nach Tibet, die ihn zum Kuku-Nor und durch Tsaidam zum Quellgebiet des Hwangho und an den Oberlauf des Yangtsekiang führte. Auf einer zweiten Reise nach Tibet, 1891-1892, gelangte R. bis in die Nähe von Lhassa. Er veröffentlichte: »The land of the Lamas. Notes of a journey through China, Mongolia and Tibet« (Lond. 1891) und »Diary of a journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and 1892« (Washingt. 1894)."
[Quelle: Meyers großes Konversations-Lexikon. -- DVD-ROM-Ausg. Faksimile und Volltext der 6. Aufl. 1905-1909. -- Berlin : Directmedia Publ. --2003. -- 1 DVD-ROM. -- (Digitale Bibliothek ; 100). -- ISBN 3-89853-200-3. -- s.v.]
Zu Kapitel 4: Das zweite Konzil